DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis

The syntheses of RNA (transcription), DNA and proteins (translation) are fundamental processes necessary for all life. Transcription begins by uncoiling a section of DNA that will be used as the template and is initiated by RNA polymerase binding to a promoter sequence.

Literature (2)

DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis Antagonists

Cat. No. Product Name / Activity
7894 Auxinole
Auxin antagonist of TIR1/AFB receptors; also OsTIR1 inhibitor in auxin-inducible degron (AID) system

DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis Modulators

Cat. No. Product Name / Activity
6460 ABX 464
HIV RNA splicing modulator
8063 CHDI 113
Potent HTT pre-RNA splicing modulator
IKBKAP pre-mRNA splicing modulator
7054 T4
Modulator of alternative polyadenylation; inhibits rod photoreceptor gene expression via Nr2e3

DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis Inhibitors

Cat. No. Product Name / Activity
4800 4EGI-1
Inhibitor of eIF4E:eIF4G interaction
1229 Actinomycin D
RNA polymerase inhibitor
2513 Acyclovir
Viral DNA polymerase inhibitor
4025 α-Amanitin
Inhibitor of RNA polymerase II
1290 Anisomycin
Protein synthesis inhibitor
5736 Aphidicolin
DNA polymerase α, δ and ε inhibitor
6392 B02
RAD51 recombinase inhibitor
2981 BIBR 1532
Selective telomerase inhibitor
5417 BMH 21
RNA polymerase 1 inhibitor; also p53 pathway activator
5312 BRACO 19 trihydrochloride
Telomerase inhibitor
6196 Brequinar sodium
Potent and selective DHODH inhibitor
7457 CAM 833
Selective orthosteric inhibitor of the BRCA2-RAD51 interaction
2626 Carboplatin
Inhibitor of DNA synthesis
4436 8-Chloroadenosine
Cytotoxic nucleoside analog; inhibits RNA synthesis
2294 Cordycepin
RNA synthesis inhibitor
7485 Covidcil-19
Binds to SARS-CoV-2 frameshifting element and reduces frameshifting efficiency
0970 Cycloheximide
Inhibitor of protein synthesis
4520 Cytarabine
Nucleoside analog; inhibits DNA replication
3917 Daptomycin
Antibiotic; inhibits protein, DNA and RNA synthesis in gram-positive bacteria
1467 Daunorubicin hydrochloride
RNA synthesis inhibitor
3857 Dexrazoxane hydrochloride
Topoisomerase II inhibitor
7810 eIF4A i28
eIF4A inhibitor
7342 Emetine dihydrochloride
RNA polymerase inhibitor; inhibits replication of a broad range of RNA and DNA viruses, including SARS-CoV-2 and Zika
3495 Fludarabine
Purine analog; inhibits DNA synthesis
3257 5-Fluorouracil
Inhibits RNA and DNA synthesis
4131 G418 disulfate salt
Aminoglycoside antibiotic; used in cell culture
3259 Gemcitabine hydrochloride
DNA synthesis inhibitor
1993 Halofuginone hydrobromide
High affinity competitive prolyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor
1416 Homoharringtonine
Inhibitor of protein synthesis; antileukemic agent
5740 6-Hydroxy-DL-DOPA
Allosteric inhibitor of RAD52; also APE1 inhibitor
6483 Isoginkgetin
Pre-mRNA splicing inhibitor; cell permeable
7338 K 22
Inhibits coronavirus RNA replication; impairs double membrane vesicle (DMV) formation
6068 Lin28 1632
RNA binding protein Lin28 inhibitor; promotes mESC differentiation; also bromodomain inhibitor
3765 Linezolid
Antibiotic; inhibits protein synthesis in gram-positive bacteria
6510 LNT 1
Potent flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) inhibitor; induces DNA damage response
6819 Mefloquine hydrochloride
Binds 80S ribosome and inhibits protein synthesis in P falciparum; also gap junction blocker
1489 Mithramycin A
Inhibitor of DNA and RNA polymerase
3258 Mitomycin C
Inhibitor of DNA synthesis
6359 Nelarabine
Purine nuceloside analog; inhibits DNA synthesis
5340 NSC 617145
Werner syndrome helicase (WRN) inhibitor
2623 Oxaliplatin
Inhibitor of DNA synthesis
6222 PFM 01
MRE11 endonuclease inhibitor
6070 Pladienolide B
mRNA splicing inhibitor; antitumor
7321 Pritelivir
Potent and selective herpes simplex virus (HSV) helicase primase inhibitor
4089 Puromycin dihydrochloride
Protein synthesis inhibitor
4501 Ribavirin
Antiviral guanosine analog; blocks eIF4E activity
7760 Selinexor
Selective exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1) inhibitor
7554 SSYA10-001
Inhibits coronavirus helicase; blocks unwinding activity of Nsp13 and RNA synthesis
4723 T2AA
PCNA inhibitor
6884 TC SL C5
Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (Malat1) RNA inhibitor
5069 Teriflunomide
Inhibitor of DHODH; active metabolite of Leflunomide
4309 TPEN
RNA binding protein Lin28 inhibitor; cell-permeable Zn2+ chelator
3253 Triptolide
Inhibits RNAPII-mediated transcription; antitumor, anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive
3863 Trovafloxacin mesylate
Antibiotic; inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis
7569 Verdinexor
Selective exportin-1 (XPO1/CRM1) inhibitor
3787 Viomycin
Antibiotic; inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis
4067 YK 4-279
Inhibitor of RNA helicase A (RHA)
6491 YM 155
RNA binding protein ILF3 inhibitor; survivin suppressor


Cat. No. Product Name / Activity
7789 IA
SHAPE-JuMP monoadduct control for TBIA (Cat. No. 7788)


Cat. No. Product Name / Activity
6602 1M7
Reagent for RNA SHAPE-MaP chemistry
7376 2A3
Reagent for RNA SHAPE-MaP experiments in vivo; cell permeable
5962 3-AP
Ribonucleotide reductase inhibitor; also an iron chelator
3771 Azithromycin
Antibiotic; inhibits 50S ribosomal subunit formation and elongation at transpeptidation
3681 Bendamustine hydrochloride
Cytostatic agent; exhibits DNA alkylating and purine analog properties
5015 5-BrdU
Synthetic thymidine analog; used for cell proliferation assays
8108 CEP
Chemoproteomic reagent, clickable electrophilic purine for RNA binding profiling in live cells
4091 Cyclophosphamide
Alkylating agent; chemotherapeutic
7207 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine
Thymidine analog for labeling DNA; can be linked to a fluorophore by click chemistry
7206 5-Ethynyluridine
Uridine analog, used for labeling RNA synthesis
8011 FAI
Reagent for RNA SHAPE-MaP experiments in live cells
5075 Harmine
Binds to the yjdF aptamer; activates riboswitch function; also DYRK1A inhibitor
6782 Indisulam
Pre-mRNA splicing modulator; hCA XII inhibitor
5284 trans-ISRIB
Integrated stress response (ISR) inhibitor
5185 JTE 607 dihydrochloride
Active metabolite binds CPSF3; Pro-drug
7586 Molnupiravir
Prodrug of antiviral nucleoside analog; inhibits SARS-CoV, SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV infection
7004 NAI
Reagent for RNA SHAPE-MaP experiments in vivo; cell permeable
7974 P3S
Reagent for modifying RNA at 2'-OH position, for SHAPE-MAP experiments
6862 Psoralen-triethylene glycol azide
RNA conformation probe; reagent for COMRADES RNA platform
7916 Risdiplam
Selective SMN2 gene splicing modifier
6586 Targapremir 210
Inhibits formation of miR-210
7788 TBIA
Bivalent SHAPE cross-linking reagent
4562 Topotecan hydrochloride
Binds to U4 RNA and inhibits RNA splicing; also DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor

RNA, DNA and protein synthesis are fundamental processes necessary for all life.

RNA synthesis (transcription) begins by uncoiling a section of DNA that will be used as the template. RNA polymerase binds to a promoter sequence and initiates separation of the DNA double helix. Complementary ribonucleotides align and RNA polymerase catalyzes their polymerization. The newly synthesized RNA strand undergoes post-transcriptional processing before it leaves the nucleus.

Protein synthesis (translation) is the process of synthesizing a polypeptide chain from a mRNA template. Initiation factors trigger the small ribosomal subunit to bind to mRNA, allowing a tRNA molecule (which contains an amino acid) with an anticodon complementary to the mRNA initiation codon to bind. The large ribosomal subunit now binds and translation occurs. tRNA molecules sequentially bind to the complementary mRNA sequences and ribosomal enzymes catalyze the formation of peptide (amide) bonds.

DNA synthesis is a semiconservative process; each strand serves as a template for the synthesis of a new one. Helicase enzymes 'unwind' the DNA double helix, allowing DNA polymerase access to the polynucleotide chain. DNA polymerase cannot initiate de novo DNA synthesis - an RNA primer is required - and synthesis occurs in a 5' to 3' direction. DNA polymerases have 'proofreading' ability, which is essential to prevent mutations in the genome.

Literature for DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis

Tocris offers the following scientific literature for DNA, RNA and Protein Synthesis to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!

*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.

Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Research Product Guide

Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Research Product Guide

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  • Cell Cycle and Mitosis
  • DNA Damage Repair
  • Targeted Protein Degradation
  • Ubiquitin Proteasome Pathway
  • Chemotherapy Targets
Huntington's Disease Research Product Guide

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This product guide provides a background to Huntington's disease research and lists around 100 products for the study of:

  • Somatic Instability
  • Proteolysis and Inclusion Bodies
  • Transcriptional Dysregulation
  • Mitochondrial Dysfunction
  • Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Transport Interference
  • Excitotoxicity
  • Stem Cells