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Our interactive pathways give an overview of some major signal transduction processes, and provide an alternative way to browse the Tocris website. Click on the individual proteins and receptors to locate key research tools and view the range of products Tocris has to offer.
The Akt signaling pathway plays a key role in the mediation of protein synthesis, metabolism, proliferation and cell cycle progression. It may be referred to as a 'pro-survival' pathway.
AMPK signaling pathway plays an important role in the cellular response to low levels of available ATP, often caused by stresses such as heat shock, ischemia or hypoxia.
Apoptosis is a physiological process for cell death that is critical during aging and development. It may also be referred to as cell "suicide". Apoptosis can be triggered by events both inside and outside of the cell.
Estrogen is a steroid hormone that is responsible for the regulation of growth, differentiation and function of the reproductive system. Estrogen signaling is often dysregulated in breast cancer and osteoporosis.
Signaling through the insulin pathway is fundamental for the regulation of intracellular glucose levels. This pathway can become dysregulated in diabetes.
The JAK-STAT signaling pathway has several roles, including the control of cell proliferation and hematopoiesis. It is the main signal transduction cascade from cytokine receptors.
The mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway evokes an intracellular signaling cascade in response to extracellular stimuli such as heat and stress. It can influence cell division, metabolism and survival.
mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that nucleates at multiprotein complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2. Signaling by these complexes regulates cell growth, proliferation and survival.
NF-κB signaling plays an important role in inflammation, the innate and adaptive immune response and stress. Dysregulated signaling can occur in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
The Notch pathway is involved in determination of cell fate, regulation of pattern formation and other developmental settings. Disrupted signaling can cause developmental defects and a range of adult pathologies.
p53 signaling plays an important role in the co-ordination of the cellular response different types of stress such as DNA damage and hypoxia. The downstream signals lead to apoptosis, senescence and cell cycle arrest.
The TGF-β signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of growth and proliferation of cells along with migration, differentiation and apoptosis.
TLR signaling is involved in the cellular response to threatening molecules such as bacteria and viruses. It results in an inflammatory and immmunological response.
VEGF signaling pathway is involved in embryonic vascular development (vasculogenesis) and in the formation of new blood vessel (angiogenesis). It also induces cell migration, proliferation and survival.
The Wnt pathway is involved in cellular differentiation and proliferation in adult tissues and also during embryogenesis. Disturbances within the pathway may lead to the formation of tumors and promote metastasis.