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Neuroscience is the study of the nervous system - one of the major mammalian systems responsible for sustaining life. The central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS) work in concert to coordinate basic functions such as moving and breathing, as well as 'higher order' functions including thought, speech and emotion.
The incidence of degenerative neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, is increasing worldwide. As these diseases are typically associated with advancing age, this increase is partly due to rising life expectancy. However, environmental factors such as pesticide and insecticide use, are being discussed as possible etiologies for these neurodegenerative diseases.
Neurological diseases can be classified according to their etiology. They can be caused by:
At present pharmacological interventions for many neurological diseases, especially the degenerative conditions, are limited and predominantly restricted to alleviation of symptoms. The understanding of the nervous system, and prevention and treatment of neurological disorders represents one of the critical goals of medical research today. Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis are currently the focus of intense neuroscience research.
Written by Phillip Strange and revised by Kim Neve in 2013, this review summarizes the history of the dopamine receptors and provides an overview of individual receptor subtype properties, their distribution and identifies ligands which act at each receptor subtype. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.
Written by Ian Martin, Norman Bowery and Susan Dunn, this review provides a history of the GABA receptor, as well as discussing the structure and function of the various subtypes and the clinical potential of receptor modulators; compounds available from Tocris are listed.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disease and the most common cause of dementia, affecting approximately 47 million people worldwide. Updated in 2015, this poster summarizes the structural and functional changes observed in the progression of this neurodegenerative disease, as well as classic AD drug targets.
Recognition memory enables us to make judgements about whether or not we have encountered a particular stimulus before. This poster outlines the cellular mechanisms underlying recognition memory and its links to long-term depression, as well as the use of pharmacological intervention to assess the role of neurotransmitters in recognition memory.
Parkinson's disease (PD) causes chronic disability and is the second most common neurodegenerative condition. This poster outlines the neurobiology of the disease, as well as highlighting current therapeutic treatments for symptomatic PD, and emerging therapeutic strategies to delay PD onset and progression.