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Pharmacology is the study of interactions between drugs and biological systems. It is also the study of drug sources and their intrinsic properties. Most drugs act on defined pharmacological targets in order to exert their effects. The term drug is intended to mean any substance that alters normal biochemical function. Drugs with medicinal properties are termed pharmaceuticals.
Tocris products are categorised according to pharmacological activity. Click on any link below for further information.
Pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics are the two main areas of pharmacology. Pharmacodynamics is broadly the investigation of effects of a drug (e.g. small molecules or peptides) on biological systems. This includes the drug mechanism of action and relationship between concentration and biological response. Pharmacokinetics is the study of how the body effects a drug; and encompasses drug uptake, distribution around the body, and chemical metabolism and clearance.
Tocris started out as pharmacology company in 1982, when Professor Jeff Watkins from the pharmacology department at the University of Bristol, UK, made glutamate compounds commercially available to the research community. Among the first were DL-AP4 (Cat. No. 0101), a broad spectrum excitatory amino acid (EAA) ligand, and it's two isomers D-AP4 (Cat. No. 0102) and L-AP4 (Cat.No. 0103).
Since then Tocris has expanded to provide pharmacological research tools for all the main research areas including cancer, cardiovascular system, cell and gene therapy, endocrinology, immunology, neuroscience, pain and inflammation and respiratory systems. The Tocris range includes tools for target 30 GPCRs targets, 25 enzyme targets, 10 ion channel targets and more. As well as an expansive range of gold standard research tools and reagents, Tocris strives to be first to market with cutting edge products such as DREADD ligands, PSEMs, photoswitchable ligands and degraders (part of the PROTAC® Degraders & Targeted Protein Degradation portfolio).
Tocris provides popular pharmacology resources including our molarity calculator, dilution calculator, reconstitution calculator, pharmacology glossary and peptide nomenclature guide. Our glossary gives clear definitions of commonly used pharmacology terms such as efficacy, allosteric modulator and pKB.
Tocris also produces a range of scientific posters, reviews and product guides, free to request or download. Authored by experts in their field, two of our newest posters highlight some of the most recent advances in pharmacological theory. Allosteric GPCR Pharmacology authored by Professor Arthur Christopoulos, covers GPCR allosteric mechanisms and their applications in therapy. Written by Professor Patrick Sexton et al, GPCR Efficacy and Biased Agonism discusses cutting edge GPCR signaling pharmacology and highlights therapeutic applications of biased agonism, PAMS, NAMs and ligands with different efficacies.