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Cancer is a term used to define a group of diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control, are able to invade neighboring tissues/organs and metastasize. Cancer has been characterized by six hallmarks; self sufficiency in proliferative growth signals, insensitivity to growth inhibitors, evasion of apoptosis, limitless replicative potential, ability to develop blood vessels (angiogenesis), and tissue invasion and metastasis.
There are more than 100 different types of human cancer - most named after the organ or type of cell in which they start. Cancer types can be grouped into broad categories, the five main ones being:
Owing to the prevalence of cancer within the population, investigation of potential therapeutic targets is the focus of intense research. Current therapeutic research is focusing on identifying new cellular targets for intervention, developing drugs based on small molecules, antibodies or nucleic acids. New drugs specifically targeting intracellular kinases, growth factor receptors or the proteasome are beginning to be used as frontline therapies, often in combination with established chemotherapeutic agents.
MAP kinase signaling is integral to the regulation of numerous cellular processes such as proliferation and differentiation, and as a result is an important focus of cancer and immunology research. Updated for 2016, this review discusses the regulation of the MAPK pathway and properties of MAPK cascades. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.
Produced by Tocris and updated in 2014, the epigenetics research bulletin gives an introduction into mechanisms of epigenetic regulation, and highlights key Tocris products for epigenetics targets including:
There are two currently recognized forms of programmed cell death: apoptosis and necroptosis. This poster summarizes the signaling pathways involved in apoptosis, necroptosis and cell survival following death receptor activation, and highlights the influence of the molecular switch, cFLIP, on cell fate.