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Cancer is a term used to define a group of diseases in which abnormal cells divide without control, are able to invade neighboring tissues/organs and metastasize. Cancer has been characterized by six hallmarks; self sufficiency in proliferative growth signals, insensitivity to growth inhibitors, evasion of apoptosis, limitless replicative potential, ability to develop blood vessels (angiogenesis), and tissue invasion and metastasis.
Cancers are often named after the organ in which they are first detected - the primary tumor site. Each primary tumor site has characteristic features and markers that can be targeted in research. For more information about each cancer type by primary tumor site see the Cancer Disease Product Areas below.
There are more than 100 different types of human cancer. As well as being named after the organ or type of cell in which they start, cancer types can also be grouped into broad categories, the five main ones being:
Owing to the prevalence of cancer within the population, investigation of potential therapeutic targets is the focus of intense research. Current therapeutic research is focusing on identifying new cellular targets for intervention, developing drugs based on small molecules, antibodies or nucleic acids. New drugs specifically targeting intracellular kinases, growth factor receptors or the proteasome are beginning to be used as frontline therapies, often in combination with established chemotherapeutic agents.
Tocris offers the following scientific literature for Cancer Research to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
This product guide provides a review of the cell cycle and DNA damage research area and lists over 170 products, including research tools for:
MAP kinase signaling is integral to the regulation of numerous cellular processes such as proliferation and differentiation, and as a result is an important focus of cancer and immunology research. Updated for 2016, this review discusses the regulation of the MAPK pathway and properties of MAPK cascades. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.
Produced by Tocris and updated in 2014, the epigenetics research bulletin gives an introduction into mechanisms of epigenetic regulation, and highlights key Tocris products for epigenetics targets including:
This poster summarizes the main metabolic pathways in cancer cells and highlights potential targets for cancer therapeutics. Genetic changes and epigenetic modifications in cancer cells alter the regulation of cellular metabolic pathways providing potential cancer therapeutic targets.
In normal cells, each stage of the cell cycle is tightly regulated, however in cancer cells many genes and proteins that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle are mutated or over expressed. Adapted from the 2015 Cancer Product Guide, Edition 3, this poster summarizes the stages of the cell cycle and DNA repair. It also highlights strategies for enhancing replicative stress in cancer cells to force mitotic catastrophe and cell death.
There are two currently recognized forms of programmed cell death: apoptosis and necroptosis. This poster summarizes the signaling pathways involved in apoptosis, necroptosis and cell survival following death receptor activation, and highlights the influence of the molecular switch, cFLIP, on cell fate.