These protocol pages provide summary information about how to use Tocris products. They are intended as guides only; full experimental details can be found in the references given with the individual protocol outlines.

For optimal binding aptamers require refolding into their tertiary structure prior to use. The protocols listed below provide information regarding refolding and aptamer use in unfixed cell imaging and flow cytometry.

NHS ester (succinimydyl ester, SE) versions of the Janelia Fluor® dyes are suitable for coupling to primary amine groups on e.g. antibodies/protocols. This protocol provides guidance on Janelia Fluor®, SE dye conjugation.

These Stem Cell Protocol snapshots are intended to highlight how small molecules may be used in place of or in combination with growth factors and other proteins in cell culture, reprogramming and differentiation. Using small molecules in stem cell protocols offers several advantages:

  • their effects are rapid and reversible, making their use easy to control with time
  • they are cell permeable so can be used to target intracellular pathways
  • they are chemically synthesized, ensuring high purity, low batch-to-batch variability and reproducible results
  • their activity is often concentration-dependent so they can be used in different protocols with different outcomes.