Stem Cell Proliferation

Cellular proliferation describes an increase in cell number caused by cell growth and division into two identical daughter cells. Production of cells identical to the parent is termed 'self-renewal.' Unlike other cell types, stem cells have the ability to replicate many times.

Literature (5)
Cat. No. Product Name / Activity
3336 A 769662
Potent AMPK activator; inhibits MSC proliferation
2939 A 83-01
Maintains self-renewal of human iPSCs; selective inhibitor of TGF-βRI, ALK4 and ALK7
4095 Amiodarone hydrochloride
Selectively eliminates NSCs in hESC-derived cell populations; also broad-spectrum ion channel blocker
7001 AT 7867
Induces proliferation of iPSC-derived pancreatic progenitor cells; pan-Akt and PKA inhibitor
3194 BIO
Maintains self-renewal and pluripotency of ESCs; potent inhibitor of GSK-3; also inhibits cdks
7372 CDK8/19i
Potent and selective CDK8 and CDK19 inhibitor; maintains pluripotency of mouse PSCs in culture
1063 CGS 21680 hydrochloride
Increases proliferation of NPCs; potent A2A receptor agonist
3858 CH 223191
AhR antagonist; promotes expansion of human hematopoietic stem cells
7163 Chroman 1
Highly potent and selective ROCK 2 inhibitor; improves cell survival after cryogenesis
4027 16,16-Dimethyl Prostaglandin E2
Induces stem cell proliferation
6019 Diprotin A
Increases number of viable HSC during harvesting; DPP-IV inhibitor
7726 DMSO, Cell Cryopreserve Grade
Intracellular cryoprotective agent
1261 EHNA hydrochloride
Suppresses spontaneous differentiation of human ESCs; adenosine deaminase inhibitor
6291 ELA-32 (human)
Apelin receptor agonist; promotes self-renewal and primes hESCs toward endoderm lineage
7310 Emricasan
Promotes survival of hPSCs in combination with other small molecules; potent pan-caspase inhibitor
6340 Epiblastin A
Converts epiblast stem cells to ESCs and promotes ESC self-renewal; CK1 inhibitor
6961 FzM1.8
Preserves stemness and promotes proliferation of undifferentiated cells; Frizzled 4 allosteric agonist
2285 Go 6983
Optimizes naïve human pluripotent stem cell growth and viability; PKC inhibitor
2910 H 89 dihydrochloride
Improves survival and clonogenicity of dissociated human ESCs; PKA inhibitor
5283 HLM 006474
E2F transcription factor inhibitor; attenuates hESC proliferation
4997 INDY
Dyrk1A/B inhibitor; impairs self-renewal of NSCs
5284 trans-ISRIB
Promotes survival of hPSCs in combination with other small molecules; also integrated stress response (ISR) inhibitor
3533 IWP 2
PORCN inhibitor; suppresses self-renewal in R1 ESCs
7419 Kyoto Probe-1
Fluorescent probe that selectively identifies undifferentiated iPS/ES cells
7044 (±)-α-Lipoic acid
Maintains function of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) in culture; antioxidant
1130 LY 294002 hydrochloride
Prototypical PI 3-kinase inhibitor; suppresses proliferation of mESCs
6618 MB 05032
Promotes HSC expansion; also FBPase inhibitor
3213 Methylene Blue
Stimulates proliferation of fibroblasts
1671 PD 102807
Promotes expansion of erythroid progenitors
3044 PD 173074
Selective FGFR1 and -3 inhibitor; inhibits proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors
1213 PD 98059
MEK inhibitor; enhances ESC self-renewal
4124 Pioglitazone hydrochloride
Acts synergistically with Y-27632 (Cat.No. 1254) to improve PSC cloning efficiency; PPARγ agonist
7739 Polyamine Supplement x1000 (lyophilized)
Media supplement to boost cell growth; used as component of CEPT cocktail to enhance stem cell viability
2296 Prostaglandin E2
Induces hematopoietic stem cell proliferation
4978 Pyrintegrin
Enhances survival of human ESCs following enzymatic dissociation
7723 RGD peptide
Directs association of stem cells with diverse biomaterials; increases cell spreading
1264 SB 202190
Promotes stability of human PSCs; potent, selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK
1202 SB 203580
Selective inhibitor of p38 MAPK; stimulates neural stem cell proliferation
1616 SB 216763
GSK-3 inhibitor; maintains mouse ESCs in a pluripotent state
1614 SB 431542
Induces proliferation, differentiation and sheet formation of ESC-derived endothelial cells
3784 Sildenafil citrate
Promotes mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in combination with AMD 3100; potent PDE5 inhibitor
1496 SP 600125
Used for maintaining stem cells in naive pluripotent state; selective JNK inhibitor
7086 StemRegenin 1
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) antagonist; promotes HSC expansion and engraftment
3300 SU 5402
Supports mESC self-renewal; potent FGFR and VEGFR inhibitor
6634 Surfen
Maintains pluripotency of hESCs; heparin sulfate antagonist
5759 SW 033291
High affinity 15-PGDH inhibitor; promotes hematopoiesis and hepatocyte proliferation
3845 Thiazovivin
Improves survival of hESCs; ROCK inhibitor
7340 Tocriscreen Stem Cell Library
A library of 120 stem cell compounds (100 μL 10 mM DMSO solutions) to explore stem cell reprogramming, differentiation, proliferation and signaling
3114 Troglitazone
Selective PPARγ agonist; inhibits growth of hematopoietic cell lines
1144 U0126
Regulates hPSCs self-renewal; also potent, selective inhibitor of MEK1 and 2
5413 WH-4-023
Supports self-renewal of naive hESCs
1254 Y-27632 dihydrochloride
Selective ROCK inhibitor; increases survival rate of human embryonic stem cells undergoing cryopreservation
6719 YH 239-EE
Promotes survival of muscle stem cells (MuSCs); MDM2 inhibitor; activates p53 activity
6599 Yhhu 3792
Enhances the self-renewal capability of NSCs; notch signaling pathway activator; active in vivo

Stem Cell Self-Renewal

Proliferation and self-renewal of stem cells occurs via the division of a cell into two identical daughter cells, resulting in the production of cells identical to the parent. Unlike other cell types, such as muscle or blood cells, stem cells are able to replicate many times. Under the right conditions stem cells can continue to proliferate in culture over many months without differentiation and specialization, yielding millions of cells; this is known as long-term self-renewal.

The proliferation and maintenance of stem cells in the undifferentiated pluripotent state is controlled by signaling pathways, growth factors and transcription factors. Three transcription factors, Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog, are key to maintaining pluripotency and self-renewal. The transcription factors enhance the activity of genes associated with maintaining the pluripotent state, while repressing genes that enable stem cell differentiation. The expression of Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog is controlled by the LIF, Wnt and TGF-β/BMP signaling pathways, respectively, and activation of all three pathways in associated with the maintenance of stem cells in the pluripotent state. A change in the expression of one of the three core transcription factors switches the stem cell from self-renewal to differentiation.

2i-Containing Medium

The ability of stem cells to proliferate is beneficial for regenerative medicine. Signaling pathway inhibitor compounds have been found to maintain proliferation and pluripotency of stem cells in long term culture and offer the advantage for medicinal use of being chemically-defined. A combination of the GSK-3 inhibitor CHIR 99021 with the MEK inhibitor PD 0325901, for example (known as 2i), can maintain long-term self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Conventional stem cell culture techniques require mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) 'feeder' cells, serum products and growth factors, which have the potential to introduce unwanted animal pathogens into stem cell culture.

Although 2i containing medium can be used to maintain stem cell self-renewal almost indefinitely, stem cells are susceptible to apoptosis upon routine passage. Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitors, such as Y-27632, have been shown to significantly reduce apoptosis of ESCs during passage.

Stem Cell Proliferation and Disease

Pathologically, the excessive proliferation of cancer stem cells can lead to the formation of tumors.

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Literature for Stem Cell Proliferation

Tocris offers the following scientific literature for Stem Cell Proliferation to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!

*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.

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