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Biological Activity for Prostaglandin E2
Prostaglandin E2 is an endogenous prostaglandin and primary product of arachidonic acid/cyclooxygenase pathway. Prostaglandin E2 binds with high affinity to EP1, EP2, EP3 and EP4 receptors (Kd values range between ~ 1 - 10 nM). Prostaglandin E2 influences a wide range of processes including inflammation, vasodilation, smooth muscle relaxation, fertility, gastric mucosal integrity and platelet aggregation. Prostaglandin E2 regulates vertebrate hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) homeostasis, acts as viral transduction enhancer and is tumorigenic in some cancers.
Technical Data for Prostaglandin E2
|Storage||Store at -20°C|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Solubility Data for Prostaglandin E2
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions for Prostaglandin E2
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 352.47. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||2.84 mL||14.19 mL||28.37 mL|
|5 mM||0.57 mL||2.84 mL||5.67 mL|
|10 mM||0.28 mL||1.42 mL||2.84 mL|
|50 mM||0.06 mL||0.28 mL||0.57 mL|
Product Datasheets for Prostaglandin E2
References for Prostaglandin E2
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Coleman et al (1994) Classification of prostanoid receptors: properties, distribution, and structure of the receptors and their subtypes. Pharmacol.Rev. 46 205 PMID: 7938166
Hata and Breyer (2004) Pharmacology and signaling of prostaglandin receptors: multiple roles in inflammation and immune modulation. Pharm.Ther. 103 147
North et al (2007) Prostaglandin E2 regulates vertebrate haematopoietic stem cell homeostasis. Nature. 447 1007 PMID: 17581586
Sato et al (2015) SnapShot: Growing organoids from stem cells. Cell. 161 1700 PMID: 26091044
Karthaus et al (2014) Identification of multipotent luminal progenitor cells in human prostate organoid cultures. Cell. 159 163 PMID: 25201529
Heffner et al (2018) Prostaglandin E2 increases lentiviral vector transduction efficiency of adult human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Mol.Ther 26 320 PMID: 29102562
Ke et al (2016) Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) promotes proliferation and invasion by enhancing SUMO-1 activity via EP4 receptor in endometrial cancer. Tumour Biol. 37 12203 PMID: 27230680
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Keywords: Prostaglandin E2, Prostaglandin E2 supplier, endogenous, prostanoid, EP1, EP2, EP3, EP4, Receptors, prostaglandins, prostacyclins, eicosanoids, ProstaglandinE2, stem, cells, e2, PGE2, hematopoietic, haematopoietic, HSC, Prostanoid, Stem, Cell, Signaling, Proliferation, Organoids, Viral, Transduction, Enhancers, Hematopoietic, Cells, 2296, Tocris Bioscience
19 Citations for Prostaglandin E2
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Prostaglandin E2 include:
Al-Taei et al (2017) Prostaglandin E2-mediated adenosinergic effects on CD14+ cells: Self-amplifying immunosuppression in cancer. Oncoimmunology 6 e1268308 PMID: 28344879
Roe et al (2017) Enhancer Reprogramming Promotes Pancreatic Cancer Metastasis. Cell 170 875 PMID: 28757253
Ma et al (2017) Organoid culture of human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and C4-2B. Am J Clin Exp Urol 5 25 PMID: 29181435
Sherman et al (2018) A Novel Three-Dimensional Immune Oncology Model for High-Throughput Testing of Tumoricidal Activity. Front Immunol 9 857 PMID: 29740450
Senger et al (2018) Human Fetal-Derived Enterospheres Provide Insights on Intestinal Development and a Novel Model to Study Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC). Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 5 549 PMID: 29930978
Somerville et al (2018) TP63-Mediated Enhancer Reprogramming Drives the Squamous Subtype of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. Cell Rep 25 1741 PMID: 30428345
Sachamitr et al (2018) Directed Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into Dendritic Cells Displaying Tolerogenic Properties and Resembling the CD141+ Subset. Front Immunol 8 1935 PMID: 29358940
Drost et al (2016) Organoid culture systems for prostate epithelial and cancer tissue. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 11 347 PMID: 26797458
Bartfeld et al (2015) In vitro expansion of human gastric epithelial stem cells and their responses to bacterial infection. Gastroenterology 148 126 PMID: 25307862
Weeber et al (2015) Preserved genetic diversity in organoids cultured from biopsies of human colorectal cancer metastases. Cell 112 13308 PMID: 26460009
Boj et al (2015) Organoid models of human and mouse ductal pancreatic cancer. Sci Signal 160 324 PMID: 25557080
Ye et al (2018) Prostaglandin E2 receptor 3 signaling is induced in placentas with unexplained recurrent pregnancy losses. Endocr Connect 7 749 PMID: 29700097
Anneken et al (2013) MDMA increases glutamate release and reduces parvalbumin-positive GABAergic cells in the dorsal hippocampus of the rat: role of cyclooxygenase. Respir Res 8 58 PMID: 23179355
Post et al (2020) Snake venom gland organoids. Cell 180 233 PMID: 31978343
Zhu (2018) Prostaglandin receptor EP3 regulates cell proliferation and migration with impact on survival of endometrial cancer patients. Oncotarget 9 982 PMID: 29416671
Colomer et al (2019) IKKα Kinase Regulates the DNA Damage Response and Drives Chemo-resistance in Cancer. Mol Cell 75 669 PMID: 31302002
Wang et al (2012) Astrocytes modulate neural network activity by Ca2+-dependent uptake of extracellular K+. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol 5 ra26 PMID: 22472648
Langdale et al (2017) Stimulation of the pelvic nerve increases bladder capacity in the prostaglandin E2 rat model of overactive bladder. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 313 F657 PMID: 28615244
Gonnermann et al (2015) Resistance of cyclooxygenase-2 expressing pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells against γδ T cell cytotoxicity. Oncoimmunology 4 e988460 PMID: 25949900
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Reviews for Prostaglandin E2
Average Rating: 4 (Based on 1 Review.)
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Application of prostaglandin E2 on brain slices. No effect in our assay but the concentration might have been too low. We had some decent effect on cultured cells.
Literature in this Area
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Peripheral sensitization is the reduction in the threshold of excitability of sensory neurons that results in an augmented response to a given external stimulus. This poster outlines the excitatory and inhibitory signaling pathways involved in modulation of peripheral sensitization. The role of ion channels, GPCRs, neurotrophins, and cytokines in sensory neurons are also described.