SB 431542

Pricing Availability Delivery Time Qty
Cat.No. 1614 - SB 431542 | C22H16N4O3 | CAS No. 301836-41-9
Description: Potent, selective inhibitor of TGF-βRI, ALK4 and ALK7
Chemical Name: 4-[4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-5-(2-pyridinyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl]benzamide
Purity: ≥99% (HPLC)
Datasheet
Citations (142)
Reviews
Literature
Pathways

Biological Activity

Potent and selective inhibitor of the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) type I receptor activin receptor-like kinase ALK5 (IC50 = 94 nM), and its relatives ALK4 and ALK7. Suppresses TGF-β-induced proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells. Stimulates proliferation, differentiation and sheet formation of ESC-derived endothelial cells. Inhibits TGF-β-induced EMT, migration, invasion and VEGF secretion in several human cancer cell lines.

Licensing Information

Sold for research purposes under agreement from GlaxoSmithKline

Compound Libraries

SB 431542 is also offered as part of the Tocriscreen Plus, Tocriscreen Kinase Inhibitor Toolbox I and Tocriscreen Stem Cell Toolbox. Find out more about compound libraries available from Tocris.

Technical Data

M. Wt 384.39
Formula C22H16N4O3
Storage Store at RT
Purity ≥99% (HPLC)
CAS Number 301836-41-9
PubChem ID 4521392
InChI Key FHYUGAJXYORMHI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Smiles NC(=O)C1=CC=C(C=C1)C1=NC(=C(N1)C1=CC=CC=N1)C1=CC2=C(OCO2)C=C1

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.

Solubility Data

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
Solubility
DMSO 38.44 100
ethanol 3.84 10

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 384.39. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to solvent of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 2.6 mL 13.01 mL 26.02 mL
5 mM 0.52 mL 2.6 mL 5.2 mL
10 mM 0.26 mL 1.3 mL 2.6 mL
50 mM 0.05 mL 0.26 mL 0.52 mL

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Product Datasheets

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
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Safety Datasheet

References

References are publications that support the products' biological activity.

Inman et al (2002) SB-431542 is a potent and specific inhibitor of transforming growth factor-β superfamily type I activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) receptors ALK4, ALK5, and ALK7. Mol.Pharmacol. 62 65 PMID: 12065756

Laping et al (2002) Inhibition of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced extracellular matrix with a novel inhibitor of the TGF-β type I receptor kinase activity: SB-431542. Mol.Pharmacol. 62 58 PMID: 12065755

Matsuyama et al (2003) SB-431542 and Gleevec inhibit transforming growth factor-β-induced proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells. Cancer Res. 63 7791 PMID: 14633705

Watabe et al (2003) TGF-beta receptor kinase inhibitor enhances growth and integrity of embryonic stem cell-derived endothelial cells. J.Cell Biol. 163 163 PMID: 14676305

Halder et al (2005) A specific inhibitor of TGF-beta receptor kinase, SB-431542, as a potent antitumor agent for human cancers. Neoplasia 7 509 PMID: 15967103


If you know of a relevant reference for SB 431542, please let us know.

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142 Citations for SB 431542

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for SB 431542 include:

Kapeli et al (2016) Distinct and shared functions of ALS-associated proteins TDP-43, FUS and TAF15 revealed by multisystem analyses Nature Communications 7 12143 PMID: 27378374

Mou et al (2016) Dual SMAD Signaling Inhibition Enables Long-Term Expansion of Diverse Epithelial Basal Cells Cell: Stem Cell 19 217 PMID: 27320041

Vargel et al (2016) Activation of the TGFβ pathway impairs endothelial to haematopoietic transition. Nat Protoc 6 21518 PMID: 26891705

Huang et al (2016) Generating trunk neural crest from human pluripotent stem cells. Sci Rep 6 19727 PMID: 26812940

Morris et al (2016) The Epstein-Barr virus encoded LMP1 oncoprotein modulates cell adhesion via regulation of activin A/TGFβ and β1 integrin signalling. Mol Cell Biol 6 19533 PMID: 26782058

Oenema et al (2016) Bronchoconstriction Induces TGF-β Release and Airway Remodelling in Guinea Pig Lung Slices. Stem Cells 8 e65580 PMID: 23840342

Marro et al (2016) Collagen XII contributes to epicardial and connective tissues in the Zebrafish heart during ontogenesis and regeneration PLoS One 11 e0165497 PMID: 27783651

Sulaiman et al (2016) A trematode parasite derived growth factor binds and exerts influences on host immune functions via host cytokine receptor complexes PLoS Pathogens 12 e1005991 PMID: 27806135

Moerkamp et al (2016) Human fetal and adult epicardial-derived cells: a novel model to study their activation Stem Cell Research & Therapy 7 174 PMID: 27899163

Sanders et al (2015) SMAD-independent down-regulation of caveolin-1 by TGF-β: effects on proliferation and survival of myofibroblasts. PLoS One 10 e0116995 PMID: 25658089

Piao et al (2015) Human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors remyelinate the brain and rescue behavioral deficits following radiation. Cell Stem Cell 16 198 PMID: 25658373

Woods et al (2015) Increased Expression of TGF-β Signaling Components in a Mouse Model of Fibrosis Induced by Submandibular Gland Duct Ligation. PLoS One 10 e0123641 PMID: 25955532

Yan et al (2015) Stimulation of hepatocarcinogenesis by neutrophils upon induction of oncogenic kras expression in transgenic zebrafish. J Hepatol 63 420 PMID: 25828472

Kumar et al (2015) Generation of an expandable intermediate mesoderm restricted progenitor cell line from human pluripotent stem cells. Elife 4 PMID: 26554899

Aspalter et al (2015) Alk1 and Alk5 inhibition by Nrp1 controls vascular sprouting downstream of Notch. Nat Commun 6 7264 PMID: 26081042

Pasca et al (2015) Functional cortical neurons and astrocytes from human pluripotent stem cells in 3D culture. Nat Methods 12 671 PMID: 26005811

Oh et al (2015) Human-induced pluripotent stem cells generated from intervertebral disc cells improve neurologic functions in spinal cord injury. Stem Cell Res Ther 6 125 PMID: 26104416

Imaizumi et al (2015) Controlling the Regional Identity of hPSC-Derived Neurons to Uncover Neuronal Subtype Specificity of Neurological Disease Phenotypes. J Clin Invest 5 1010 PMID: 26549851

Huang et al (2015) The in vitro generation of lung and airway progenitor cells from human pluripotent stem cells. Exp Cell Res 10 413 PMID: 25654758

Bras et al (2015) TGFβ loss activates ADAMTS-1-mediated EGF-dependent invasion in a model of esophageal cell invasion. Mol Med 330 29 PMID: 25064463

Chen et al (2015) Pentoxifylline Attenuates Proteinuria in Anti-Thy1 Glomerulonephritis via Downregulation of Nuclear Factor-κB and Smad2/3 Signaling. Brain 21 276 PMID: 25879629

Iovino et al (2015) Early maturation and distinct tau pathology in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons from patients with MAPT mutations. Development 138 3345 PMID: 26220942

Jönsson et al (2015) Comprehensive analysis of microRNA expression in regionalized human neural progenitor cells reveals microRNA-10 as a caudalizing factor. Stem Cell Reports 142 3166 PMID: 26395143

Agu et al (2015) Successful Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines from Blood Samples Held at Room Temperature for up to 48 hr. Exp Neurol 5 660 PMID: 26388286

Saporta et al (2015) Axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease patient-derived motor neurons demonstrate disease-specific phenotypes including abnormal electrophysiological properties. Nat Commun 263 190 PMID: 25448007

Sakaguchi et al (2015) Generation of functional hippocampal neurons from self-organizing human embryonic stem cell-derived dorsomedial telencephalic tissue. Mol Neurobiol 6 8896 PMID: 26573335

Razak et al (2013) Profiling of microRNA in human and mouse ES and iPS cells reveals overlapping but distinct microRNA expression patterns. Nat Neurosci 8 e73532 PMID: 24086284

Briones-Orta et al (2013) Arkadia regulates tumor metastasis by modulation of the TGF-β pathway. Am J Stem Cells 73 1800 PMID: 23467611

Kreitzer et al (2013) A robust method to derive functional neural crest cells from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Methods 2 119 PMID: 23862100

Chetty et al (2013) A simple tool to improve pluripotent stem cell differentiation. Cell 10 553 PMID: 23584186

Kusuma et al (2013) Self-organized vascular networks from human pluripotent stem cells in a synthetic matrix. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 110 12601 PMID: 23858432

Kim et al (2013) High-power femtosecond-terahertz pulse induces a wound response in mouse skin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 3 2296 PMID: 23907528

Shalom-Feuerstein et al (2013) Impaired epithelial differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells from ectodermal dysplasia-related patients is rescued by the small compound APR-246/PRIMA-1MET. Neuropsychopharmacology 110 2152 PMID: 23355677

Pol et al (2013) Sox10-MCS5 enhancer dynamically tracks human oligodendrocyte progenitor fate. Stem Cell Res 247 694 PMID: 23507034

Crompton et al (2013) Stepwise, non-adherent differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells to generate basal forebrain cholinergic neurons via hedgehog signaling. PLoS One 11 1206 PMID: 24013066

Honda et al (2013) Naive-like conversion overcomes the limited differentiation capacity of induced pluripotent stem cells. ACS Chem Neurosci 288 26157 PMID: 23880763

Rostovskaya et al (2012) Transposon-mediated BAC transgenesis in human ES cells. Nucleic Acids Res 40 e150 PMID: 22753106

Mak et al (2012) Small molecules greatly improve conversion of human-induced pluripotent stem cells to the neuronal lineage. Stem Cells Int 2012 140427 PMID: 22567022

Grönroos et al (2012) Transforming growth factor β inhibits bone morphogenetic protein-induced transcription through novel phosphorylated Smad1/5-Smad3 complexes. Mol Cell Biol 32 2904 PMID: 22615489

Boettler et al (2012) TGF-β blockade does not improve control of an established persistent viral infection. Viral Immunol 25 232 PMID: 22620718

Sohni et al (2012) TGFβ1-induced Baf60c regulates both smooth muscle cell commitment and quiescence. PLoS One 7 e47629 PMID: 23110084

Outten et al (2012) High-throughput screening assay for embryoid body differentiation of human embryonic stem cells. Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol Chapter 1 Unit 1D.6 PMID: 22415836

Boeuf et al (2012) BMP and TGFbeta pathways in human central chondrosarcoma: enhanced endoglin and Smad 1 signaling in high grade tumors. BMC Cancer 12 488 PMID: 23088614

Hoda et al (2012) Suppression of activin A signals inhibits growth of malignant pleural mesothelioma cells. Br J Cancer 107 1978 PMID: 23169291

Neely et al (2012) DMH1, a highly selective small molecule BMP inhibitor promotes neurogenesis of hiPSCs: comparison of PAX6 and SOX1 expression during neural induction. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 3 482 PMID: 22860217

Varela et al (2012) Recurrent genomic instability of chromosome 1q in neural derivatives of human embryonic stem cells. Sci Rep 122 569 PMID: 22269325

Denham et al (2012) Glycogen synthase kinase 3β and activin/nodal inhibition in human embryonic stem cells induces a pre-neuroepithelial state that is required for specification to a floor plate cell lineage. J Neurosci 30 2400 PMID: 22911885

Shi et al (2012) Human cerebral cortex development from pluripotent stem cells to functional excitatory synapses. Cancer Res 15 477 PMID: 22306606

Rodríguez et al (2012) Modulation of pluripotency in the porcine embryo and iPS cells. Nat Biotechnol 7 e49079 PMID: 23145076

Valdez et al (2012) Notch and TGFβ form a reciprocal positive regulatory loop that suppresses murine prostate basal stem/progenitor cell activity. Nature 11 676 PMID: 23122291

Smith et al (2012) A novel co-operative mechanism linking TGFβ and Lyn kinase activation to imatinib resistance in chronic myeloid leukaemia cells. PLoS One 3 518 PMID: 22643838

Shields et al (2011) Pancreatic cancer cells respond to type I collagen by inducing snail expression to promote membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase-dependent collagen invasion. J Biol Chem 286 10495 PMID: 21288898

Paek et al (2011) β-Catenin-dependent FGF signaling sustains cell survival in the anterior embryonic head by countering Smad4. Dev Cell 20 689 PMID: 21571225

Ishida et al (2010) Phosphorylation of Junb family proteins by the Jun N-terminal kinase supports tissue regeneration in zebrafish. Dev Biol 340 468 PMID: 20144602

Hannigan et al (2010) Epigenetic downregulation of human disabled homolog 2 switches TGF-beta from a tumor suppressor to a tumor promoter. J Clin Invest 120 2842 PMID: 20592473

Ham et al (2010) PPARdelta promotes wound healing by up-regulating TGF-beta1-dependent or -independent expression of extracellular matrix proteins. J Cell Mol Med 14 1747 PMID: 19538467

Fong et al (2010) Tumor-supportive and osteoclastogenic changes induced by breast cancer-derived factors are reversed by inhibition of {gamma}-secretase. J Biol Chem 285 31427 PMID: 20679341

Moyano et al (2010) Autocrine transforming growth factor-{beta}1 activation mediated by integrin {alpha}V{beta}3 regulates transcriptional expression of laminin-332 in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells. Mol Biol Cell 21 3654 PMID: 20844080

Redondo et al (2010) Role of TGF-β1 and MAP kinases in the antiproliferative effect of aspirin in human vascular smooth muscle cells. PLoS One 5 e9800 PMID: 20339548

Wang et al (2010) Regulation of pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrotic factors by CCN2/CTGF in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Nat Commun 4 15 PMID: 20195389

Clarke et al (2009) Transforming growth factor beta depletion is the primary determinant of Smad signaling kinetics. Mol Cell Biol 29 2443 PMID: 19223462

Garamszegi et al (2009) Extracellular matrix-induced gene expression in human breast cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res 7 319 PMID: 19276183

Cacheaux et al (2009) Transcriptome profiling reveals TGF-beta signaling involvement in epileptogenesis. J Neurosci 29 8927 PMID: 19605630

Patsialou et al (2009) Invasion of human breast cancer cells in vivo requires both paracrine and autocrine loops involving the colony-stimulating factor-1 receptor. Cancer Res 69 9498 PMID: 19934330

Li et al (2009) Generation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells in the absence of exogenous Sox2. Stem Cells 27 2992 PMID: 19839055

Grande and Patel (2009) Nodal signalling is involved in left-right asymmetry in snails. J Cell Commun Signal 457 1007 PMID: 19098895

Chambers et al (2009) Highly efficient neural conversion of human ES and iPS cells by dual inhibition of SMAD signaling. J Biotechnol 27 275 PMID: 19252484

Giampieri et al (2009) Localized and reversible TGFβ signalling switches breast cancer cells from cohesive to single cell motility. J Biol Chem 11 1287 PMID: 19838175

Waghabi et al (2009) Pharmacological inhibition of transforming growth factor β signaling decreases infection and prevents heart damage in acute Chagas' disease. Sci Rep 53 4694 PMID: 19738024

Patani et al (2009) Activin/Nodal inhibition alone accelerates highly efficient neural conversion from human embryonic stem cells and imposes a caudal positional identity. Oncotarget 4 e7327 PMID: 19806200

Stoikos et al (2008) A distinct cohort of the TGFbeta superfamily members expressed in human endometrium regulate decidualization. Hum Reprod 23 1447 PMID: 18434375

Gressner et al (2008) Activation of TGF-beta within cultured hepatocytes and in liver injury leads to intracrine signaling with expression of connective tissue growth factor. J Cell Mol Med 12 2717 PMID: 18266973

Zhang et al (2008) Short-term BMP-4 treatment initiates mesoderm induction in human embryonic stem cells. Blood 111 1933 PMID: 18042803

Yang et al (2008) Rb/E2F4 and Smad2/3 link survivin to TGF-beta-induced apoptosis and tumor progression. Oncogene 27 5326 PMID: 18504435

Ding and Warburton (2008) Down-regulation of Sprouty2 via p38 MAPK plays a key role in the induction of cellular apoptosis by tumor necrosis factor-α. Hypertens Res 375 460 PMID: 18713620

Horowitz et al (2007) Combinatorial activation of FAK and AKT by transforming growth factor-beta1 confers an anoikis-resistant phenotype to myofibroblasts. Cell Signal 19 761 PMID: 17113264

Castañares et al (2007) Signaling by ALK5 mediates TGF-β-induced ET-1 expression in endothelial cells: a role for migration and proliferation. Genes Dev 120 1256 PMID: 17376964

Zhao et al (2006) PPARgamma agonists prevent TGFbeta1/Smad3-signaling in human hepatic stellate cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 350 385 PMID: 17010940

Chen et al (2006) Identification of phosphatases for Smad in the BMP/DPP pathway. Sci Rep 20 648 PMID: 16510868

de la Mare (2017) Extracellular Hsp90 and TGFβ regulate adhesion, migration and anchorage independent growth in a paired colon cancer cell line model. BMC Cancer 17 202 PMID: 28302086

Xi (2017) In Vivo Human Somitogenesis Guides Somite Development from hPSCs. Cell Rep 18 1573 PMID: 28178531

Tchieu et al (2017) A modular platform for differentiation of human PSCs into all major ectodermal lineages. Cell Stem Cell 21 399 PMID: 28886367

Kotton et al (2017) Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into functional lung alveolar epithelial cells. Cell Stem Cell. 21 472 PMID: 28965766

Ooi et al (2015) Inhibition of Excessive Monoamine Oxidase A/B Activity Protects Against Stress-induced Neuronal Death in Huntington Disease. PLoS One 52 1850 PMID: 25398695

Kawahara et al (2015) TGF-β Negatively Regulates the BMP2-Dependent Early Commitment of Periodontal Ligament Cells into Hard Tissue Forming Cells. PeerJ 10 e0125590 PMID: 25970290

Lages et al (2015) Low oxygen alters mitochondrial function and response to oxidative stress in human neural progenitor cells. J Reprod Dev 3 e1486 PMID: 26713239

Honsho et al (2015) Naïve-like conversion enhances the difference in innate in vitro differentiation capacity between rabbit ES cells and iPS cells. BMC Cancer 61 42626 PMID: 25345855

Wilson et al (2015) The differential anti-tumour effects of zoledronic acid in breast cancer - evidence for a role of the activin signaling pathway. Sci Rep 15 55 PMID: 25884855

Caraci et al (2015) A key role for TGF-β1 in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory. PLoS Comput Biol 5 11252 PMID: 26059637

Ziv et al (2015) Quantitative Live Imaging of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Derived Neural Rosettes Reveals Structure-Function Dynamics Coupled to Cortical Development. Mol Biol Cell 11 e1004453 PMID: 26473351

Niederst et al (2015) Axonal amyloid precursor protein and its fragments undergo somatodendritic endocytosis and processing. Hum Mol Genet 26 205 PMID: 25392299

Sposito et al (2015) Developmental regulation of tau splicing is disrupted in stem cell-derived neurons from frontotemporal dementia patients with the 10 + 16 splice-site mutation in MAPT. Stem Cell Reports 24 5260 PMID: 26136155

Singh et al (2015) Cell-Cycle Control of Bivalent Epigenetic Domains Regulates the Exit from Pluripotency. Stem Cells Dev 5 323 PMID: 26278042

Hu et al (2015) Generation of Naivetropic Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells from Parkinson's Disease Patients for High-Efficiency Genetic Manipulation and Disease Modeling. J Virol 24 2591 PMID: 26218671

Tabata et al (2015) Human cytomegalovirus infection interferes with the maintenance and differentiation of trophoblast progenitor cells of the human placenta. Sci Rep 89 5134 PMID: 25741001

Ramnath et al (2015) Fibulin-4 deficiency increases TGF-β signalling in aortic smooth muscle cells due to elevated TGF-β2 levels. Evodevo 5 16872 PMID: 26607280

Soukup et al (2015) The Nodal signaling pathway controls left-right asymmetric development in amphioxus. J Clin Invest 6 5 PMID: 25954501

Hadland et al (2015) Endothelium and NOTCH specify and amplify aorta-gonad-mesonephros-derived hematopoietic stem cells. Nat Cell Biol 125 2032 PMID: 25866967

Cebola et al (2015) TEAD and YAP regulate the enhancer network of human embryonic pancreatic progenitors. Mol Cell Endocrinol 17 615 PMID: 25915126

Martínez-Armenta et al (2015) TGFβ2 regulates hypothalamic Trh expression through the TGFβ inducible early gene-1 (TIEG1) during fetal development. J Clin Invest 400 129 PMID: 25448845

Li et al (2015) MicroRNA-132 enhances transition from inflammation to proliferation during wound healing. Sci Rep 125 3008 PMID: 26121747

Rosa et al (2014) miR-373 is regulated by TGFβ signaling and promotes mesendoderm differentiation in human Embryonic Stem Cells. Dev Biol 391 81 PMID: 24709321

Huang et al (2014) Efficient generation of lung and airway epithelial cells from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Biotechnol 32 84 PMID: 24291815

Domev et al (2014) Immunoevasive pericytes from human pluripotent stem cells preferentially modulate induction of allogeneic regulatory T cells. Stem Cells Transl Med 3 1169 PMID: 25205843

Grunseich et al (2014) Stem cell-derived motor neurons from spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy patients. Neurobiol Dis 70 12 PMID: 24925468

Aguila et al (2014) Selection Based on FOXA2 Expression Is Not Sufficient to Enrich for Dopamine Neurons From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem Cells Transl Med 3 1032 PMID: 25024431

Fang et al (2014) Ets Related Gene and Smad3 Proteins Collaborate to Activate Transforming Growth Factor-Beta Mediated Signaling Pathway in ETS Related Gene-Positive Prostate Cancer Cells. J Pharm Sci Pharmacol 1 175 PMID: 25745638

Babu et al (2014) TGFβ-mediated suppression of CD248 in non-cancer cells via canonical Smad-dependent signaling pathways is uncoupled in cancer cells. BMC Cancer 14 113 PMID: 24555435

Nishimura et al (2014) Allele-specific knockdown of ALS-associated mutant TDP-43 in neural stem cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. PLoS One 9 e91269 PMID: 24651281

Wrighton et al (2014) Signals from the surface modulate differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells through glycosaminoglycans and integrins. J Cell Sci 111 18126 PMID: 25422477

Curado et al (2014) ALK5 and ALK1 play antagonistic roles in transforming growth factor β-induced podosome formation in aortic endothelial cells. Exp Neurol 34 4389 PMID: 25266657

Dai et al (2014) Combining TGF-β signal inhibition and connexin43 silencing for iPSC induction from mouse cardiomyocytes. PLoS One 4 7323 PMID: 25471520

Wu et al (2014) A novel suppressive effect of alcohol dehydrogenase 5 in neuronal differentiation. Fibrogenesis Tissue Repair 289 20193 PMID: 24895131

Soares et al (2014) Investigating the feasibility of scale up and automation of human induced pluripotent stem cells cultured in aggregates in feeder free conditions. Cell Stem Cell 173 53 PMID: 24440272

Jiang et al (2013) Translating dosage compensation to trisomy 21. Nature 500 296 PMID: 23863942

Voon et al (2013) EMT-induced stemness and tumorigenicity are fueled by the EGFR/Ras pathway. PLoS One 8 e70427 PMID: 23950932

Bialas and (2013) TGF-β signaling regulates neuronal C1q expression and developmental synaptic refinement. Nat Neurosci 16 1773 PMID: 24162655

Davila et al (2013) Acute reduction in oxygen tension enhances the induction of neurons from human fibroblasts. J Neurosci Methods 216 104 PMID: 23562599

Kirkeby et al (2013) Generating regionalized neuronal cells from pluripotency, a step-by-step protocol. Front.Cell Neurosci. 6 64 PMID: 23316134

Lotz et al (2013) Sustained levels of FGF2 maintain undifferentiated stem cell cultures with biweekly feeding. PLoS One 8 e56289 PMID: 23437109

Spender et al (2013) Transforming growth factor-β directly induces p53-up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) during the rapid induction of apoptosis in myc-driven B-cell lymphomas. J Biol Chem 288 5198 PMID: 23243310

Woodruff et al (2013) The presenilin-1 δE9 mutation results in reduced γ-secretase activity, but not total loss of PS1 function, in isogenic human stem cells. Cell Rep 5 974 PMID: 24239350

Xia et al (2013) Identification of repurposed small molecule drugs for chordoma therapy. Cancer Biol Ther 14 638 PMID: 23792643

Shields et al (2013) Snail cooperates with KrasG12D to promote pancreatic fibrosis. Mol Cancer Res 11 1078 PMID: 23761168

Ninomiya et al (2006) Transforming growth factor-β signaling enhances transdifferentiation of macrophages into smooth muscle-like cells. Mol Cell Biol 29 269 PMID: 16778334

Shi-Wen et al (2006) Constitutive ALK5-independent c-Jun N-terminal kinase activation contributes to endothelin-1 overexpression in pulmonary fibrosis: evidence of an autocrine endothelin loop operating through the endothelin A and B receptors. Exp Cell Res 26 5518 PMID: 16809784

Chen et al (2005) Matrix contraction by dermal fibroblasts requires transforming growth factor-beta/activin-linked kinase 5, heparan sulfate-containing proteoglycans, and MEK/ERK: insights into pathological scarring in chronic fibrotic disease. Am J Pathol 167 1699 PMID: 16314481

Mimura et al (2005) Trastuzumab-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 11 4898 PMID: 16000588

König et al (2005) TGF-{beta}1 activates two distinct type I receptors in neurons: implications for neuronal NF-{kappa}B signaling. J Cell Biol 168 1077 PMID: 15781474

Anumanthan et al (2005) Restoration of TGF-beta signalling reduces tumorigenicity in human lung cancer cells. Br J Cancer 93 1157 PMID: 16251876

Bedel et al (2011) Novel role for STAT3 in transcriptional regulation of NK immune cell targeting receptor MICA on cancer cells. Cancer Res 71 1615 PMID: 21257710

Wilson et al (2011) Human tumour immune evasion via TGF-β blocks NK cell activation but not survival allowing therapeutic restoration of anti-tumour activity. PLoS One 6 e22842 PMID: 21909397

Herman-Edelstein et al (2011) Dedifferentiation of immortalized human podocytes in response to transforming growth factor-β: a model for diabetic podocytopathy. Diabetes 60 1779 PMID: 21521871

Olkhanud et al (2011) Tumor-evoked regulatory B cells promote breast cancer metastasis by converting resting CD4+ T cells to T-regulatory cells. Cancer Res 71 3505 PMID: 21444674

Hecker et al (2011) Reversible differentiation of myofibroblasts by MyoD. PLoS One 317 1914 PMID: 21440539

Grocott et al (2011) Neural crest cells organize the eye via TGF-β and canonical Wnt signalling. Stem Cell Reports 2 265 PMID: 21468017

Xi et al (2011) A poised chromatin platform for TGF-β access to master regulators. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 147 1511 PMID: 22196728

Chen et al (2011) Thrombospondin 1 is a key mediator of transforming growth factor β-mediated cell contractility in systemic sclerosis via a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)-dependent mechanism. PLoS One 4 9 PMID: 21453480

Tan et al (2011) Generation of trophoblast stem cells from rabbit embryonic stem cells with BMP4. Nat Cell Biol 6 e17124 PMID: 21359200

Seibler et al (2011) Mitochondrial Parkin recruitment is impaired in neurons derived from mutant PINK1 induced pluripotent stem cells. Shock 31 5970 PMID: 21508222

Duan et al (2011) Increased transforming growth factor β contributes to deterioration of refrigerated fresh frozen plasma's effects in vitro on endothelial cells. J Clin Cell Immunol 36 54 PMID: 21330944

Xie et al (2011) Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Antagonizes Interleukin-5 Pro-Survival Signaling by Activating Calpain-1 in Primary Human Eosinophils. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A Suppl 1 PMID: 24244891


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Stem Cells

Stem Cells Scientific Review

Written by Kirsty E. Clarke, Victoria B. Christie, Andy Whiting and Stefan A. Przyborski, this review provides an overview of the use of small molecules in the control of stem cell growth and differentiation. Key signaling pathways are highlighted, and the regulation of ES cell self-renewal and somatic cell reprogramming is discussed. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.

Pathways for SB 431542

TGF-β

TGF-β Signaling Pathway

The TGF-β signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of growth and proliferation of cells along with migration, differentiation and apoptosis.