Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a serine-threonine kinase with two isoforms (α and β), that was originally discovered as an important enzyme in glycogen metabolism. GSK-3 was subsequently shown to function in cellular division, proliferation, motility and survival.

Products
Background
Literature
Gene Data

Inhibitors

Cat No Product Name / Activity
4083 3F8
Potent and selective GSK-3β inhibitor
4431 A 1070722
Highly potent, selective GSK-3 inhibitor
3966 AR-A 014418
Selective GSK-3 inhibitor
3194 BIO
Potent, selective GSK-3 inhibitor
3874 BIO-acetoxime
Selective GSK-3α/β inhibitor
4423 CHIR 99021
Highly selective GSK-3 inhibitor
4953 CHIR 99021 trihydrochloride
Hydrochloride salt of CHIR 99021 (Cat. No. 4423); selective GSK-3 inhibitor
1532 10Z-Hymenialdisine
Pan kinase inhibitor; potently inhibits GSK-3β
1813 Indirubin-3'-oxime
GSK-3β inhibitor. Also inhibits other protein kinases
1398 Kenpaullone
GSK-3 inhibitor. Also inhibits cdks
4740 Lithium carbonate
Mood stabilizer; inhibits GSK-3 in vivo
3873 MeBIO
Inactive analog of BIO (Cat. No. 3194)
1937 NSC 693868
GSK-3 inhibitor. Also inhibits cdks
1616 SB 216763
Potent, selective GSK-3 inhibitor
1617 SB 415286
Potent, selective GSK-3 inhibitor
4353 TC-G 24
Potent and selective GSK-3β inhibitor
3869 TCS 2002
Potent GSK-3β inhibitor
4221 TCS 21311
GSK-3β inhibitor. Also inhibits PKC and JAK3
6092 TDZD 8
Selective non-ATP competitive inhibitor of GSK 3β
3835 TWS 119
GSK-3β inhibitor; induces neuronal differentiation in ESCs

Substrates

Cat No Product Name / Activity
1802 2B-(SP)
Selective GSK-3 phosphopeptide substrate
1352 Phospho-Glycogen Synthase Peptide-2 (substrate)
GSK-3 substrate (synthetic)

Other

Cat No Product Name / Activity
2236 TCS 183
Fragment 1-13 of GSK-3β sequence
2320 TCS 184
Scrambled control peptide for use with TCS 183 (Cat. No. 2236)

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), a serine-threonine kinase with two isoforms (α and β), was originally discovered as a key enzyme in glycogen metabolism. GSK-3 was subsequently shown to function in cell division, proliferation, motility and survival. GSK-3 plays a role in a number of pathological conditions including cancer and diabetes and is increasingly seen as an important component of neurological diseases.

GSK-3 phosphorylates tau and presenilin-1, which are involved in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Both isoforms of GSK-3 are ubiquitously expressed, although particularly high levels of GSK-3β are found in the brain where it is involved in synaptic plasticity, possibly via regulation of NMDA receptor trafficking. GSK-3 phosphorylates over 40 different substrates including signaling proteins, transcription factors and structural proteins, and is part of the signal transduction cascade of a large number of growth factors and cytokines. The activity of GSK is regulated by phosphorylation (Akt, S6K, RSK, PKA and PKC), dephosphorylation (PP1 and PP2A), and by binding to protein complexes (with β-catenin, axin, CK1 and the APC complex).

Literature for Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3

Cancer

Cancer Research Product Guide

A collection of over 750 products for cancer research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Cancer Metabolism
  • Epigenetics in Cancer
  • Receptor Signaling
  • Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Repair
  • Angiogenesis
  • Invasion and Metastasis
Kinases

Kinases Product Listing

A collection of over 400 products for kinase research, the listing includes inhibitors of:

  • Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
  • Protein Kinases A, C, D and G
  • PI-3 Kinase, Akt and mTOR
  • MAPK Signaling
  • Receptor Serine/Threonine Kinases
Neurodegeneration

Neurodegeneration Product Guide

A collection of over 275 products for neurodegeneration research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Huntington's disease
Alzheimer's

Alzheimer's Poster

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disease and the most common cause of dementia, affecting approximately 47 million people worldwide. Updated in 2015, this poster summarizes the structural and functional changes observed in the progression of this neurodegenerative disease, as well as classic AD drug targets.

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia Poster

Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects 1% of the worldwide population. This poster describes the neurobiology of Schizophrenia, as well as highlighting the genetic and environmental factors that play a fundamental role in the etiology of the disease. The current and emerging drug targets are also discussed.

Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Gene Data

Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
GSK-3α Human GSK3A NM_019884 P49840
Mouse Gsk3a NM_001031667 Q2NL51
Rat Gsk3a NM_017344 P18265
GSK-3β Human GSK3B NM_002093 P49841
Mouse Gsk3b NM_019827 Q9WV60
Rat Gsk3b NM_032080 P18266