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Potent and highly selective inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) (IC50 values are 6.7 and 10 nM for GSK-3β and GSK-3α respectively). Exhibits >500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 over closely related kinases; also displays >800-fold selectivity against 45 additional enzymes and receptors. In combination with tranylcypromine (Cat. No. 3852), enables reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts, transduced by Oct4 and Klf4 only, into iPSCs. Enhances mouse and human ESC self-renewal when used in combination with PD 0325901 (Cat. No. 4192). Allows formation of extended pluripotent stem (EPS) cells in combination with (S)-(+)-Dimethindene maleate (Cat.No. 1425), minocycline hydrochloride (Cat.No. 3268) and human leukemia inhibitory factor.
CHIR 99021 synthesized to cGMP guidelines also available.
|Storage||Store at -20°C|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 465.34. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|0.2 mM||10.74 mL||53.72 mL||107.45 mL|
|1 mM||2.15 mL||10.74 mL||21.49 mL|
|2 mM||1.07 mL||5.37 mL||10.74 mL|
|10 mM||0.21 mL||1.07 mL||2.15 mL|
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Pan et al (2011) AKT kinase activity is required for Li to modulate mood-related behaviors in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology 36 1397 PMID: 21389981
Ring et al (2003) Selective glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors potentiate Ins activation of glucose transport and utilization in vitro and in vivo. Diabetes 52 588 PMID: 12606497
Li et al (2009) Generation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells in the absence of exogenous Sox2. Stem Cells 27 2992 PMID: 19839055
Ye et al (2012) Pleiotropy of glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition by CHIR99021 promotes self-renewal of embyronic stem cells from refractory mouse strains. PLoS One 7 e35892 PMID: 22540008
Yang et al (2017) Derivation of pluripotent stem cells with in vivo embryonic and extraembryonic potency. Cell. 169 243 PMID: 28388409
Sato et al (2015) SnapShot: Growing Organoids from Stem Cells. Cell 161 1700 PMID: 26091044
Mahe et al (2014) Establishment of gastrointestinal epithelial organoids Curr.Protoc. Mouse Biol. 3 217 PMID: 25105065
Bartfeld et al (2015) In vitro expansion of human gastric epithelial stem cells and their responses to bacterial infection. Gastroenterology 148 126 PMID: 25307862
Xia et al (2014) The generation of kidney organoids by differentiation of human pluripotent cells to ureteric bud progenitor-like cells. Nat. Protoc. 9 2693 PMID: 25340442
Dye et al (2015) In vitro generation of human pluripotent stem cell derived lung organoids. Elife PMID: 25803487
Koehler et al (2014) 3D mouse embryonic stem cell culture for generating inner ear organoids. Nat.Protoc. 9 1229 PMID: 24784820
Wimmer et al (2019) Human blood vessel organoids as a model of diabetic vasculopathy. Nature 565 505 PMID: 30651639
Noor et al (2019) 3D Printing of Personalized Thick and Perfusable Cardiac Patches and Hearts. Adv.Sci.(Weinh) 6 1900344 PMID: 31179230
Hoang et al (2018) Generation of spatial-patterned early-developing cardiac organoids using human pluripotent stem cells. Nat.Protoc. 13 723 PMID: 29543795
If you know of a relevant reference for CHIR 99021, please let us know.
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Keywords: CHIR 99021, CHIR 99021 supplier, CHIR99021, glycogen, synthase, kinase, 3, gsk-3, gsk-3a, gsk-3alpha, gsk-3α, gsk-3b, gsk-3beta, gsk-3β, inhibitors, inhibits, highly, selective, potent, organoids, Wnt, agonist, Glycogen, Synthase, Kinase, Stem, Cell, Reprogramming, Organoids, 4423, Tocris Bioscience
111 Citations for CHIR 99021
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for CHIR 99021 include:
Gentsch et al (2019) Maternal pluripotency factors initiate extensive chromatin remodelling to predefine first response to inductive signals. Nat Commun 10 4269 PMID: 31537794
Canfield et al (2019) An isogenic neurovascular unit model comprised of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived brain microvascular endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, and neurons. Fluids Barriers CNS 16 25 PMID: 31387594
Regent et al (2019) Automation of human pluripotent stem cell differentiation toward retinal pigment epithelial cells for large-scale productions. Sci Rep 9 10646 PMID: 31337830
Suzuki et al (2019) Directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into mature stratified bladder urothelium. Sci Rep 9 10506 PMID: 31324820
Garcia et al (2019) Huntington's Disease Patient-Derived Astrocytes Display Electrophysiological Impairments and Reduced Neuronal Support. Front Neurosci 13 669 PMID: 31316341
Tumelty et al (2018) Identification of direct negative cross-talk between the SLIT2 and bone morphogenetic protein-Gremlin signaling pathways. J Biol Chem 293 3039 PMID: 29317497
Liu et al (2018) CRISPR-based chromatin remodeling of the endogenous Oct4 or Sox2 locus enables reprogramming to pluripotency. Cell Stem Cell. 22 252 PMID: 29358044
Bantounas et al (2018) Generation of functioning nephrons by implanting human pluripotent stem cell-derived kidney progenitors. Stem Cell Reports 10 766 PMID: 29429961
Bar-Nur et al (2018) Direct reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts into functional skeletal muscle progenitors. Stem Cell Reports 10 1505 PMID: 29742392
Christoforou et al (2017) Core Transcription Factors, MicroRNAs, and Small Molecules Drive Transdifferentiation of Human Fibroblasts Towards The Cardiac Cell Lineage. Sci Rep 7 40285 PMID: 28071742
Zhao et al (2017) Efficient differentiation of TBX18(+)/WT1(+) epicardial-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells using small molecular compounds. Stem Cells Dev 26 528 PMID: 27927069
Leung et al (2016) WNT/β-catenin signaling mediates human neural crest induction via a pre-neural border intermediate. Development 143 398 PMID: 26839343
Chesnokova et al (2016) GH is permissive for neoplastic colon growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113 E3250 PMID: 27226307
Nakaoka et al (2016) Allelic Imbalance in Regulation of ANRIL through Chromatin Interaction at 9p21 Endometriosis Risk Locus. PLoS Genet 12 e1005893 PMID: 27055116
Fattahi et al (2016) Deriving human ENS lineages for cell therapy and drug discovery in Hirschsprung disease. Nature 531 105 PMID: 26863197
Chiu et al (2019) NMDAR-Activated PP1 Dephosphorylates GluN2B to Modulate NMDAR Synaptic Content. Cell Rep 28 332 PMID: 31291571
Canizo et al (2019) A dose-dependent response to MEK inhibition determines hypoblast fate in bovine embryos. BMC Dev Biol 19 13 PMID: 31272387
Xu et al (2019) Generation of pig induced pluripotent stem cells using an extended pluripotent stem cell culture system. Stem Cell Res Ther 10 193 PMID: 31248457
Frith and Tsakiridis (2019) Efficient Generation of Trunk Neural Crest and Sympathetic Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Via a Neuromesodermal Axial Progenitor Intermediate. Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol e81 PMID: 30688409
Du et al (2019) Efficient derivation of extended pluripotent stem cells from NOD-scid Il2rg-/- mice. Protein Cell 10 31 PMID: 29948854
Park et al (2019) Dual stem cell therapy synergistically improves cardiac function and vascular regeneration following myocardial infarction. Nat Commun 10 3123 PMID: 31311935
Genga et al (2019) Single-Cell RNA-Sequencing-Based CRISPRi Screening Resolves Molecular Drivers of Early Human Endoderm Development. Cell Rep 27 708 PMID: 30995470
Yang (2017) Mutual reinforcement between telomere capping and canonical Wnt signalling in the intestinalstem cell niche. Nat Commun 8 14766 PMID: 28303901
Yang et al (2017) Derivation of pluripotent stem cells with in vivo embryonic and extraembryonic potency. Cell. 169 243 PMID: 28388409
Xi (2017) In Vivo Human Somitogenesis Guides Somite Development from hPSCs. Cell Rep. 18 1573 PMID: 28178531
Kotton et al (2017) Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into functional lung alveolar epithelial cells. Cell Stem Cell. 21 472 PMID: 28965766
Tchieu et al (2017) A modular platform for differentiation of human PSCs into all major ectodermal lineages. Cell Stem Cell. 21 399 PMID: 28886367
Zhang et al (2015) Small Molecules Efficiently Reprogram Human Astroglial Cells into Functional Neurons. Cell Stem Cell 17 735 PMID: 26481520
Watmuff et al (2015) Human pluripotent stem cell derived midbrain PITX3(eGFP/w) neurons: a versatile tool for pharmacological screening and neurodegenerative modeling. Front Cell Neurosci 9 104 PMID: 25873861
Zhang et al (2015) GSK3β-Dzip1-Rab8 cascade regulates ciliogenesis after mitosis. PLoS Biol 13 e1002129 PMID: 25860027
Francipane and Lagasse (2015) The lymph node as a new site for kidney organogenesis. Stem Cells Transl Med 4 295 PMID: 25646529
Kearns et al (2015) Functional annotation of native enhancers with a Cas9-histone demethylase fusion. Nat Methods 12 401 PMID: 25775043
Jain et al (2015) Plasticity of Hopx(+) type I alveolar cells to regenerate type II cells in the lung. Nat Commun 6 6727 PMID: 25865356
Huebsch et al (2015) Automated Video-Based Analysis of Contractility and Calcium Flux in Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Cultured over Different Spatial Scales. Tissue Eng Part C Methods 21 467 PMID: 25333967
Muthusamy et al (2014) A method to identify and isolate pluripotent human stem cells and mouse epiblast stem cells using lipid body-associated retinyl ester fluorescence. Stem Cell Reports 3 169 PMID: 25068130
Zhu et al (2014) Mouse liver repopulation with hepatocytes generated from human fibroblasts. Nature 508 93 PMID: 24572354
Hackland et al (2019) FGF Modulates the Axial Identity of Trunk hPSC-Derived Neural Crest but Not the Cranial-Trunk Decision. Stem Cell Reports 12 920 PMID: 31091435
Regier et al (2019) User-defined morphogen patterning for directing human cell fate stratification. Sci Rep 9 6433 PMID: 31015521
Schneider et al (2019) User-Friendly and Parallelized Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Microtissues in a Centrifugal Heart-on-a-Chip. Tissue Eng Part A 25 786 PMID: 30968738
Haidar et al (2019) Neuropathy-causing mutations in HSPB1 impair autophagy by disturbing the formation of SQSTM1/p62 bodies. Autophagy 15 1051 PMID: 30669930
Ranganathan et al (2019) Evaluating Shigella flexneri Pathogenesis in the Human Enteroid Model. Infect Immun 87 PMID: 30642900
Gao et al (2019) Establishment of porcine and human expanded potential stem cells. Nat Cell Biol 21 687 PMID: 31160711
Shao (2017) A pluripotent stem cell-based model for post-implantation human amniotic sac development. Nat Commun 8 208 PMID: 28785084
Brown (2017) Live imaging reveals that the first division of differentiating human embryonic stem cells often yields asymmetric fates. Cell Rep 21 301 PMID: 29020617
Solari et al (2015) Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Gene Expression Is Induced by Nanog and Oct4, Essential Pluripotent Stem Cells' Transcription Factors. Mol Syst Biol 10 e0144336 PMID: 26642061
Mutze et al (2015) Enolase 1 (ENO1) and protein disulfide-isomerase associated 3 (PDIA3) regulate Wnt/β-catenin-driven trans-differentiation of murine alveolar epithelial cells. Cell Rep 8 877 PMID: 26035385
Srikanth et al (2015) Genomic DISC1 Disruption in hiPSCs Alters Wnt Signaling and Neural Cell Fate. Sci Rep 12 1414 PMID: 26299970
Morizane et al (2015) Nephron organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells model kidney development and injury. Stem Cell Reports 33 1193 PMID: 26458176
Nostro et al (2015) Efficient generation of NKX6-1+ pancreatic progenitors from multiple human pluripotent stem cell lines. Eur J Immunol 4 591 PMID: 25843049
Hill et al (2015) Glycogen synthase kinase-3 controls IL-10 expression in CD4(+) effector T-cell subsets through epigenetic modification of the IL-10 promoter. Mol Neurobiol 45 1103 PMID: 25627813
Ooi et al (2015) Inhibition of Excessive Monoamine Oxidase A/B Activity Protects Against Stress-induced Neuronal Death in Huntington Disease. Nat Chem Biol 52 1850 PMID: 25398695
Thorne et al (2015) GSK-3 modulates cellular responses to a broad spectrum of kinase inhibitors. Mol Biol Cell 11 58 PMID: 25402767
Barbosa et al (2015) Phosphorylation and SCF-mediated degradation regulate CREB-H transcription of metabolic targets. Stem Cell Reports 26 2939 PMID: 26108621
Du et al (2015) Generation and expansion of highly pure motor neuron progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat.Commun. 6 6626 PMID: 25806427
Sladitschek and Neveu (2015) The bimodally expressed microRNA miR-142 gates exit from pluripotency. J Biol Chem 11 850 PMID: 26690966
Hugo et al (2015) Non-genomic and Immune Evolution of Melanoma Acquiring MAPKi Resistance. Cell 162 1271 PMID: 26359985
Yin et al (2019) Chemical conversion of human fetal astrocytes into neurons through modulation of multiple signaling pathways. Stem Cell Reports 12 488 PMID: 30745031
Wimmer et al (2019) Human blood vessel organoids as a model of diabetic vasculopathy. Nature 565 505 PMID: 30651639
Lang et al (2019) Single-Cell Sequencing of iPSC-DA Neurons Reconstructs Disease Progression and Identifies HDAC4 as a Regulator of Parkinson Cell Phenotypes. Cell Stem Cell 24 93 PMID: 30503143
Zhang et al (2019) Implantation initiation of self-assembled embryo-like structures generated using three types of mouse blastocyst-derived stem cells. Nat Commun 10 496 PMID: 30700702
Varghese et al (2019) Fine Tuning of Hepatocyte Differentiation from Human Embryonic Stem Cells: Growth Factor vs. Small Molecule-Based Approaches. Stem Cells Int 2019 5968236 PMID: 30805010
Vila et al (2019) Quantification of human neuromuscular function through optogenetics. Theranostics 9 1232 PMID: 30867827
Yap et al (2019) In Vivo Generation of Post-infarct Human Cardiac Muscle by Laminin-Promoted Cardiovascular Progenitors. Cell Rep 26 3231 PMID: 30893597
Heuberger et al (2019) A C/EBPα-Wnt connection in gut homeostasis and carcinogenesis. Life Sci Alliance 2 e201800173 PMID: 30599048
Shafa et al (2018) Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Manufactured Using a Current Good Manufacturing Practice-Compliant Process Differentiate Into Clinically Relevant Cells From Three Germ Layers. Front Med (Lausanne) 5 69 PMID: 29600249
Tata et al (2018) Myoepithelial Cells of Submucosal Glands Can Function as Reserve Stem Cells to Regenerate Airways after Injury. Cell Stem Cell 22 668 PMID: 29656943
Zhou et al (2018) Functional comparison of distinct Brachyury+ states in a renal differentiation assay. Biol Open 7 PMID: 29666052
Levardon et al (2018) Expansion of Airway Basal Cells and Generation of Polarized Epithelium. Bio Protoc 8 PMID: 30009215
Shekhar et al (2018) ETV1 activates a rapid conduction transcriptional program in rodent and human cardiomyocytes. Sci Rep 8 9944 PMID: 29967479
Leung et al (2018) Notch and Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signaling Impact Definitive Hematopoiesis from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem Cells PMID: 29569827
Wang et al (2018) The COPII cargo adapter SEC24C is essential for neuronal homeostasis. J Clin Invest 128 3319 PMID: 29939162
Li et al (2018) Rapid generation of gene-targeted EPS-derived mouse models through tetraploid complementation. Protein Cell PMID: 29948855
Srikanth et al (2018) Shared effects of DISC1 disruption and elevated WNT signaling in human cerebral organoids. Transl Psychiatry 8 77 PMID: 29643329
Sharma et al (2018) Stage-specific Effects of Bioactive Lipids on Human iPSC Cardiac Differentiation and Cardiomyocyte Proliferation. Sci Rep 8 6618 PMID: 29700394
Yamoah et al (2018) Highly efficient transfection of human induced pluripotent stem cells using magnetic nanoparticles. Int J Nanomedicine 13 6073 PMID: 30323594
Vermilyea et al (2017) Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Neurons from Adult Common Marmoset Fibroblasts. Stem Cells Dev 26 1225 PMID: 28635509
Sampaziotis et al (2017) Directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into functional cholangiocyte-like cells. Nat Protoc 12 814 PMID: 28333915
McCauley et al (2017) Efficient Derivation of Functional Human Airway Epithelium from Pluripotent Stem Cells via Temporal Regulation of Wnt Signaling. Cell Stem Cell 20 844 PMID: 28366587
Lancaster et al (2017) Guided self-organization and cortical plate formation in human brain organoids. Nat Biotechnol 35 659 PMID: 28562594
Morizane and Bonventre (2017) Generation of nephron progenitor cells and kidney organoids from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Protoc 12 195 PMID: 28005067
Yang et al (2017) Establishment of mouse expanded potential stem cells. Nature 550 393 PMID: 29019987
Ong et al (2017) Biomaterial-Free Three-Dimensional Bioprinting of Cardiac Tissue using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived Cardiomyocytes. Sci Rep 7 4566 PMID: 28676704
Kumar et al (2017) Dynamic regulation of Nanog and stem cell-signaling pathways by Hoxa1 during early neuro-ectodermal differentiation of ES cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 114 5838 PMID: 28584089
Lai et al (2017) Correction of Hirschsprung-Associated Mutations in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Via Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats/Cas9, Restores Neural Crest Cell Function. Gastroenterology 153 139 PMID: 28342760
Lee et al (2017) Anatomically and Functionally Distinct Lung Mesenchymal Populations Marked by Lgr5 and Lgr6. Cell 170 1149 PMID: 28886383
Lin et al (2017) Culture in Glucose-Depleted Medium Supplemented with Fatty Acid and 3,3',5-Triiodo-l-Thyronine Facilitates Purification and Maturation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 8 253 PMID: 29067001
Tang and Cheng (2017) Cocktail of chemical compounds robustly promoting cell reprogramming protects liver against acute injury. Protein Cell 8 273 PMID: 28190217
Walsh et al (2017) Defined Culture Conditions Accelerate Small-molecule-assisted Neural Induction for the Production of Neural Progenitors from Human-induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Cell Transplant 26 1890 PMID: 29390875
Zhang et al (2016) Pharmacological reprogramming of fibroblasts into neural stem cells by signaling-directed transcriptional activation. Cell Stem Cell 18 653 PMID: 27133794
Mou et al (2016) Dual SMAD Signaling Inhibition Enables Long-Term Expansion of Diverse Epithelial Basal Cells Cell: Stem Cell 19 217 PMID: 27320041
Lu et al (2016) Generation of serotonin neurons from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Biotechnol 34 89 PMID: 26655496
Capowski et al (2016) Regulation of WNT Signaling by VSX2 During Optic Vesicle Patterning in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem Cells 34 2625 PMID: 27301076
Zimmerlin et al (2016) Tankyrase inhibition promotes a stable human naïve pluripotent state with improved functionality. Development 143 4368 PMID: 27660325
Lin et al (2016) HP Promotes Cardiac Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Chemically Defined Albumin-Free Medium, Enabling Consistent Manufacture of Cardiomyocytes. Stem Cells Transl Med PMID: 27591141
Shelton et al (2014) Derivation and expansion of PAX7-positive muscle progenitors from human and mouse embryonic stem cells. Dis Model Mech 3 516 PMID: 25241748
Wu et al (2014) A novel suppressive effect of alcohol dehydrogenase 5 in neuronal differentiation. Stem Cell Res 289 20193 PMID: 24895131
Skelton et al (2014) SIRPA, VCAM1 and CD34 identify discrete lineages during early human cardiovascular development. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 13 172 PMID: 24968096
Sommer et al (2018) Th17 lymphocytes induce neuronal cell death in a human iPSC-based model of Parkinson's disease. Cell Stem Cell 23 123 PMID: 29979986
Chal et al (2016) Generation of human muscle fibers and satellite-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Nat.Protoc. 11 1833 PMID: 27583644
Orlova et al (2014) Functionality of endothelial cells and pericytes from human pluripotent stem cells demonstrated in cultured vascular plexus and zebrafish xenografts. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 34 177 PMID: 24158517
Naujok et al (2014) Cytotoxicity and activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in mouse embryonic stem cells treated with four GSK3 inhibitors. BMC Res Notes 7 273 PMID: 24779365
Schmitt et al (2018) Paneth Cells Respond to Inflammation and Contribute to Tissue Regeneration by Acquiring Stem-like Features through SCF/c-Kit Signaling. Cell Rep 24 2312 PMID: 30157426
Rajamani et al (2018) Super-Obese Patient-Derived iPSC Hypothalamic Neurons Exhibit Obesogenic Signatures and Hormone Responses. Cell Stem Cell 22 698 PMID: 29681516
Lynch et al (2018) Submucosal Gland Myoepithelial Cells Are Reserve Stem Cells That Can Regenerate Mouse Tracheal Epithelium. Cell Stem Cell 22 653 PMID: 29656941
Pham et al (2018) Generation of human vascularized brain organoids. Neuroreport 29 588 PMID: 29570159
McCauley et al (2018) Derivation of Epithelial-Only Airway Organoids from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol 45 e51 PMID: 30040246
Woo et al (2016) Enhancing a Wnt-Telomere Feedback Loop Restores Intestinal Stem Cell Function in a Human Organotypic Model of Dyskeratosis Congenita Cell Stem Cell 19 397 PMID: 27545506
Takasato et al (2016) Generation of kidney organoids from human pluripotent stem cells. Nature Protocols 11 1681 PMID: 27560173
Foulke-Abel et al (2016) Human Enteroids as a Model of Upper Small Intestinal Ion Transport Physiology and Pathophysiology. Nat Commun 150 638 PMID: 26677983
Long et al (2016) Integrin signalling regulates the expansion of neuroepithelial progenitors and neurogenesis via Wnt7a and Decorin. Nat Biotechnol 7 10354 PMID: 26838601
Huang et al (2016) Generating trunk neural crest from human pluripotent stem cells. PLoS One 6 19727 PMID: 26812940
Do you know of a great paper that uses CHIR 99021 from Tocris? Please let us know.
Reviews for CHIR 99021
Average Rating: 4.8 (Based on 10 Reviews.)
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Reprogramming media comprises of 3 μM CHIR99021 and 0.5 μM A-83-01.
The cells were then maintained in RM 15 days with fresh media every other day
For directed differentiation to neural, cells are treated with GSK-3 inhibitor, CHIR99021 to induce canonical WNT signaling. This product gave me reproducible results.
It's better to aliquot and keep it at -80°C for long term storage.
10 μM for 2 h
Used this product routinely to differentiate dopaminergic neurons from human stem cells.
All iPSC lines and R1 mouse ES cells were maintained on feeders in KO-DMEM (Invitrogen) with 3 mM CHIR99021, and 1 mM PD0325901.
In Tissue culture for growing basal cells
Culture mouse ES cells in 2i media and without 2i to assess differentiation. Only the cells in 2i are pluripotent while mES cells cultured in -2i for 48 hours exit naive pluripotency.
For directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells to kidney organoids, cells are treated with GSK-3 inhibitor, CHIR99021 to induce canonical WNT signaling. CHIR99021 concentration and differentiation time period are the key factors for this protocol. I found this product gave me reproducible results.
Although the datasheet says store at -20°C, it's better to aliquot and keep it at -80°C for long term storage.
Protocols for CHIR 99021
The following protocols feature additional information for the use of CHIR 99021 (Cat. No. 4423).
- Transdifferentiating Fibroblasts into Neurons
- Culturing Transcriptomically Distinct Pluripotent mESCs
- Converting Fibroblasts into Cardiomyocytes (9C Cocktail)
- Human iPSC-derived Myoblasts
- Reprogramming MEFs into Skeletal Muscle Progenitors
- Highly Efficient Generation of CiPSCs from MEFs
- Generation of β cells from hPSCs
- Generation and Propagation of EPS cells (LCDM Cocktail)
- Generating Vascular Organoids
Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
Stem Cells Scientific Review
Written by Kirsty E. Clarke, Victoria B. Christie, Andy Whiting and Stefan A. Przyborski, this review provides an overview of the use of small molecules in the control of stem cell growth and differentiation. Key signaling pathways are highlighted, and the regulation of ES cell self-renewal and somatic cell reprogramming is discussed. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disease and the most common cause of dementia, affecting approximately 47 million people worldwide. Updated in 2015, this poster summarizes the structural and functional changes observed in the progression of this neurodegenerative disease, as well as classic AD drug targets.
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects 1% of the worldwide population. This poster describes the neurobiology of Schizophrenia, as well as highlighting the genetic and environmental factors that play a fundamental role in the etiology of the disease. The current and emerging drug targets are also discussed.