CHIR 99021

GMP Version Available: CHIR 99021
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Description: Highly selective GSK-3 inhibitor; acts as Wnt activator
Alternative Names: CHIR99021,CT99021
Chemical Name: 6-[[2-[[4-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-5-(5-methyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]ethyl]amino]-3-pyridinecarbonitrile
Purity: ≥98% (HPLC)
Citations (409)
Reviews (16)
Protocols (13)
Literature (4)
Pathways (1)

Biological Activity for CHIR 99021

CHIR 99021 is a potent and highly selective inhibitor of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) (IC50 values are 6.7 and 10 nM for GSK-3β and GSK-3α respectively). Acts as Wnt activator. Exhibits >500-fold selectivity for GSK-3 over closely related kinases; also displays >800-fold selectivity against 45 additional enzymes and receptors. In combination with the irreversible inhibitor of LSD1 (Cat. No. 3852), CHIR 99021 enables reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts, transduced by Oct4 and Klf4 only, into iPSCs. Enhances mouse and human ESC self-renewal when used in combination with PD 0325901 (Cat. No. 4192). It promotes differentiation of hPSCs in cardiomyocytes and allows formation of extended pluripotent stem (EPS) cells in combination with (S)-(+)-Dimethindene maleate (Cat. No. 1425), tetracycline antibiotic (Cat. No. 3268) and human leukemia inhibitory factor. Also used in a protocol to generate brain organoids from human iPSCs.

CHIR 99021 synthesized to cGMP guidelines also available.

For more information on how to use CHIR 99021, see our protocols: Transdifferentiating Fibroblasts into Neurons, Culturing Transcriptomically Distinct Pluripotent mESCs, Converting Fibroblasts into Cardiomyocytes (9C Cocktail), Human iPSC-derived Myoblasts.

Scientific Data

Cardiomyocyte derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using CHIR 99021. Cells cultured in Media supplemented with Activin A (Catalog # 338-AC, R&D Systems), N21-MAX Insulin Free (Catalog # AR010, R&D Systems), BMP-4 (Catalog # 314-BP, R&D Systems), bFGF (Catalog # 233-FB, R&D Systems) and DKK-1 (Catalog # 5439-DK, R&D Systems). Stained for F-Actin (Phalloidin, green), Troponin T (red, Human Troponin T (Cardiac) Antibody, Catalog # MAB1874, R&D Systems) and counterstained with DAPI (blue, Catalog # 5748, Tocris).

External Portal Information for CHIR 99021 is a portal that offers independent guidance on the selection and/or application of small molecules for research. The use of CHIR-99021 is reviewed on the chemical probes website.

Compound Libraries for CHIR 99021

CHIR 99021 is also offered as part of the Tocriscreen 2.0 Max, Tocriscreen Kinase Inhibitor Library, Tocriscreen Epigenetics Library and Tocriscreen Stem Cell Library. Find out more about compound libraries available from Tocris.

Technical Data for CHIR 99021

M. Wt 465.34
Formula C22H18Cl2N8
Storage Store at -20°C
Purity ≥98% (HPLC)
CAS Number 252917-06-9
PubChem ID 9956119
Smiles ClC(C=C1Cl)=CC=C1C2=NC(NCCNC3=CC=C(C#N)C=N3)=NC=C2C4=NC=C(C)N4

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Solubility Data for CHIR 99021

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
DMSO 9.31 20

Preparing Stock Solutions for CHIR 99021

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 465.34. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Select a batch to recalculate based on the batch molecular weight:
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
0.2 mM 10.74 mL 53.72 mL 107.45 mL
1 mM 2.15 mL 10.74 mL 21.49 mL
2 mM 1.07 mL 5.37 mL 10.74 mL
10 mM 0.21 mL 1.07 mL 2.15 mL

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Product Datasheets for CHIR 99021

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
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References for CHIR 99021

References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.

Pan et al (2011) AKT kinase activity is required for Li to modulate mood-related behaviors in mice. Neuropsychopharmacology 36 1397 PMID: 21389981

Ring et al (2003) Selective glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors potentiate Ins activation of glucose transport and utilization in vitro and in vivo. Diabetes 52 588 PMID: 12606497

Li et al (2009) Generation of human-induced pluripotent stem cells in the absence of exogenous Sox2. Stem Cells 27 2992 PMID: 19839055

Ye et al (2012) Pleiotropy of glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition by CHIR99021 promotes self-renewal of embyronic stem cells from refractory mouse strains. PLoS One 7 e35892 PMID: 22540008

Yang et al (2017) Derivation of pluripotent stem cells with in vivo embryonic and extraembryonic potency. Cell. 169 243 PMID: 28388409

Sato et al (2015) SnapShot: Growing Organoids from Stem Cells. Cell 161 1700 PMID: 26091044

Mahe et al (2014) Establishment of gastrointestinal epithelial organoids Curr.Protoc. Mouse Biol. 3 217 PMID: 25105065

Bartfeld et al (2015) In vitro expansion of human gastric epithelial stem cells and their responses to bacterial infection. Gastroenterology 148 126 PMID: 25307862

Xia et al (2014) The generation of kidney organoids by differentiation of human pluripotent cells to ureteric bud progenitor-like cells. Nat. Protoc. 9 2693 PMID: 25340442

Dye et al (2015) In vitro generation of human pluripotent stem cell derived lung organoids. Elife PMID: 25803487

Koehler et al (2014) 3D mouse embryonic stem cell culture for generating inner ear organoids. Nat.Protoc. 9 1229 PMID: 24784820

Wimmer et al (2019) Human blood vessel organoids as a model of diabetic vasculopathy. Nature 565 505 PMID: 30651639

Noor et al (2019) 3D Printing of Personalized Thick and Perfusable Cardiac Patches and Hearts. Adv.Sci.(Weinh) 6 1900344 PMID: 31179230

Hoang et al (2018) Generation of spatial-patterned early-developing cardiac organoids using human pluripotent stem cells. Nat.Protoc. 13 723 PMID: 29543795

Lian et al (2012) Robust cardiomyocyte differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells via temporal modulation of canonical Wnt signaling. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A. 109 E1848 PMID: 22645348

Schafer et al (2023) An in vivo neuroimmune organoid model to study human microglia phenotypes. Cell 186 1222 PMID: 37172564

If you know of a relevant reference for CHIR 99021, please let us know.

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Keywords: CHIR 99021, CHIR 99021 supplier, CHIR99021, glycogen, synthase, kinase, 3, gsk-3, gsk-3a, gsk-3alpha, gsk-3α, gsk-3b, gsk-3beta, gsk-3β, inhibitors, inhibits, highly, selective, potent, organoids, Wnt, agonist, activator, CHIR, CT99021, CT, 99021, hematopoietic, haematopoietic, stem, cells, HSC, Glycogen, Synthase, Kinase, Stem, Cell, Reprogramming, Organoids, Hematopoietic, Cells, 4423, Tocris Bioscience

409 Citations for CHIR 99021

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for CHIR 99021 include:

Wendy et al (2022) The human amniotic epithelium confers a bias to differentiate toward the neuroectoderm lineage in human embryonic stem cells. Elife 11 PMID: 35815953

Sandeep et al (2022) In vitro atlas of dorsal spinal interneurons reveals Wnt signaling as a critical regulator of progenitor expansion. Cell Rep 40 111119 PMID: 35858555

Diego et al (2022) Transcription Factor Hb9 Is Expressed in Glial Cell Lineages in the Developing Mouse Spinal Cord. Eneuro 9 PMID: 36265906

Kamil et al (2022) Engineering a living cardiac pump on a chip using high-precision fabrication. Sci Adv 8 eabm3791 PMID: 35452278

Marc et al (2022) Three-Dimensional Vessels-on-a-Chip Based on hiPSC-derived Vascular Endothelial and Smooth Muscle Cells. Curr Protoc 2 e564 PMID: 36250774

Michael et al (2022) Transplanted organoids empower human preclinical assessment of drug candidate for the clinic. Sci Adv 8 eabj5633 PMID: 35857479

Elisabeth et al (2022) Autophagy modulates cell fate decisions during lineage commitment. Autophagy 18 1915-1931 PMID: 34923909

Young-Woock et al (2022) Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Alveolar Organoid with Macrophages. Int J Mol Sci 23 PMID: 36012471

Sallie et al (2022) Innate immune signaling in trophoblast and decidua organoids defines differential antiviral defenses at the maternal-fetal interface. Elife 11 PMID: 35975985

Xi et al (2022) EHMT2 methyltransferase governs cell identity in the lung and is required for KRAS G12D tumor development and propagation. Elife 11 PMID: 35983994

Jorge et al (2022) Pancreas agenesis mutations disrupt a lead enhancer controlling a developmental enhancer cluster. Dev Cell 57 1922-1936.e9 PMID: 35998583

Xi et al (2022) An optimized chromatin immunoprecipitation protocol using Staph-seq for analyzing genome-wide protein-DNA interactions. STAR Protoc 3 101918 PMID: 36595937

Jay K et al (2022) IL-17RA-signaling in Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells induces expression of transcription factor ATOH1 to promote secretory cell lineage commitment. Immunity 55 237-253.e8 PMID: 35081371

Ludovic et al (2022) Organoids capture tissue-specific innate lymphoid cell development in mice and humans. Cell Rep 40 111281 PMID: 36044863

Christine E et al (2022) Transcription factor protein interactomes reveal genetic determinants in heart disease. Cell 185 794-814.e30 PMID: 35182466

Cheng et al (2022) Genome-wide identification of the genetic basis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neuron 110 992-1008.e11 PMID: 35045337

Timothy C et al (2022) Contribution of Trp63CreERT2-labeled cells to alveolar regeneration is independent of tuft cells. Elife 11 PMID: 36129169

Florent et al (2022) Susceptibilities of CNS Cells towards Rabies Virus Infection Is Linked to Cellular Innate Immune Responses. Viruses 15 PMID: 36680128

Francisco J et al (2022) Retrotransposon instability dominates the acquired mutation landscape of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells. Nat Commun 13 7470 PMID: 36463236

Emmanouil et al (2022) Derivation of nociceptive sensory neurons from hiPSCs with early patterning and temporally controlled NEUROG2 overexpression. Cell Rep Methods 2 100341 PMID: 36452863

Elly et al (2022) Canonical Wnt signaling and the regulation of divergent mesenchymal Fgf8 expression in axolotl limb development and regeneration. Elife 11 PMID: 35587651

Yin et al (2022) Novel GSK-3 kinase inhibitor Pym-5 induces GSK-3β rather than GSK-3α-dependent melanogenesis in murine melanoma cells. J Dermatol Sci 106 170-180 PMID: 35641396

Janet L et al (2022) Generation of human elongating multi-lineage organized cardiac gastruloids. STAR Protoc 3 101898 PMID: 36595961

Kalpaj R et al (2022) A Novel Bioreactor for Reconstitution of the Epithelium and Submucosal Glands in Decellularized Ferret Tracheas. Cells 11 PMID: 35326478

Mustafa et al (2022) Dynamic 3D Combinatorial Generation of hPSC-Derived Neuromesodermal Organoids With Diverse Regional and Cellular Identities. Curr Protoc 2 e568 PMID: 36264199

Catherine et al (2022) DJ-1 is an essential downstream mediator in PINK1/parkin-dependent mitophagy. Brain 145 4368-4384 PMID: 36039535

Ran et al (2022) Efficient differentiation of human primordial germ cells through geometric control reveals a key role for Nodal signaling. Elife 11 PMID: 35394424

James R et al (2022) Human induced pluripotent stem cells integrate, create synapses and extend long axons after spinal cord injury. J Cell Mol Med 26 1932-1942 PMID: 35257489

Angelika et al (2022) Differentiation of iPS-Cells into Peripheral Sensory Neurons. Methods Mol Biol 2429 175-188 PMID: 35507161

Reza et al (2022) In Vitro Generation of Heart Field Specific Cardiomyocytes. Methods Mol Biol 2429 257-267 PMID: 35507167

Chen et al (2022) Ti3 C2 Tx MXene Composite 3D Hydrogel Potentiates mTOR Signaling to Promote the Generation of Functional Hair Cells in Cochlea Organoids. Adv Sci (Weinh) 9 e2203557 PMID: 36117048

Mary Lou et al (2022) A multimodal iPSC platform for cystic fibrosis drug testing. Nat Commun 13 4270 PMID: 35906215

Muhammad Abid et al (2022) Developmental modeling of hepatogenesis using obese iPSCs-hepatocyte differentiation uncovers pathological features. Cell Death Dis 13 670 PMID: 35915082

Erica et al (2022) Tension-driven multi-scale self-organisation in human iPSC-derived muscle fibers. Elife 11 PMID: 35920628

Stephanie et al (2022) Protocols to culture and harvest hepatic tumor organoids for metabolic assays. STAR Protoc 3 101597 PMID: 35942348

Beate et al (2022) Primary cilia and SHH signaling impairments in human and mouse models of Parkinson's disease. Nat Commun 13 4819 PMID: 35974013

Gordana et al (2022) STK25 inhibits PKA signaling by phosphorylating PRKAR1A. Cell Rep 40 111203 PMID: 35977512

Zhen et al (2022) A stem cell roadmap of ribosome heterogeneity reveals a function for RPL10A in mesoderm production. Nat Commun 13 5491 PMID: 36123354

Peng et al (2022) Isolation and characterization of human embryonic stem cell-derived heart field-specific cardiomyocytes unravels new insights into their transcriptional and electrophysiological profiles. Cardiovasc Res 118 828-843 PMID: 33744937

Lu et al (2022) Directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into diverse organ-specific mesenchyme of the digestive and respiratory systems. Nat Protoc 17 2699-2719 PMID: 35978039

Kyung-Sun et al (2022) Wnt-activating human skin organoid model of atopic dermatitis induced by Staphylococcus aureus and its protective effects by Cutibacterium acnes. iScience 25 105150 PMID: 36193049

Sagrario et al (2022) The HASTER lncRNA promoter is a cis-acting transcriptional stabilizer of HNF1A. Nat Cell Biol 24 1528-1540 PMID: 36202974

Simone et al (2022) Human fetal membrane-mesenchymal stromal cells generate functional spinal motor neurons in vitro. iScience 25 105197 PMID: 36238899

Roy et al (2022) Kidney organoids recapitulate human basement membrane assembly in health and disease. Elife 11 PMID: 35076391

Bong-Kiun et al (2022) The GSK-3 Inhibitor CT99021 Enhances the Acquisition of Spatial Learning and the Accuracy of Spatial Memory. Front Mol Neurosci 14 804130 PMID: 35153671

Gordon F et al (2022) Development of high-affinity nanobodies specific for NaV1.4 and NaV1.5 voltage-gated sodium channel isoforms. J Biol Chem 298 101763 PMID: 35202650

Martin et al (2022) Metabolomic profiling of human pluripotent stem cell differentiation into lung progenitors. iScience 25 103797 PMID: 35198866

Takashi et al (2022) Epithelial-derived factors induce muscularis mucosa of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived gastric organoids. Stem Cell Reports 17 820-834 PMID: 35245440

Shyni et al (2022) An In Vitro Microfluidic Alveolus Model to Study Lung Biomechanics. Front Bioeng Biotechnol 10 848699 PMID: 35252157

Miguel N et al (2022) A non-dividing cell population with high pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity regulates metabolic heterogeneity and tumorigenesis in the intestine. Nat Commun 13 1503 PMID: 35314684

Christine et al (2022) Renalase and its receptor, PMCA4b, are expressed in the placenta throughout the human gestation. Sci Rep 12 4953 PMID: 35322081

Catherine et al (2022) Engineering neurovascular organoids with 3D printed microfluidic chips. Lab Chip 22 1615-1629 PMID: 35333271

Chengkai et al (2022) A multi-axis robot-based bioprinting system supporting natural cell function preservation and cardiac tissue fabrication. Bioact Mater 18 138-150 PMID: 35387155

Hong et al (2022) Spinal dI4 Interneuron Differentiation From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Front Mol Neurosci 15 845875 PMID: 35465095

Stefan et al (2022) The antimicrobial peptide S100A8/A9 produced by airway epithelium functions as a potent and direct regulator of macrophage phenotype and function. Eur Respir J 59 PMID: 34561292

Guojie et al (2022) JAK inhibitor blocks COVID-19 cytokine-induced JAK/STAT/APOL1 signaling in glomerular cells and podocytopathy in human kidney organoids. JCI Insight 7 PMID: 35472001

Jing et al (2022) Single-cell atlas of the aging mouse colon. iScience 25 104202 PMID: 35479413

Monica M et al (2022) Re-Expression of ERα and AR in Receptor Negative Endocrine Cancers via GSK3 Inhibition. Front Oncol 12 824594 PMID: 35402240

Alexandre P et al (2022) An epithelial signalling centre in sharks supports homology of tooth morphogenesis in vertebrates. Elife 11 PMID: 35536602

Yue et al (2022) Mitochondrial dysfunction by TFAM depletion disrupts self-renewal and lineage differentiation of human PSCs by affecting cell proliferation and YAP response. Redox Biol 50 102248 PMID: 35091324

Xingbin et al (2022) Primary culture of tracheal aspirate-derived human airway basal stem cells. STAR Protoc 3 101390 PMID: 35600918

Yoshihiro et al (2022) CDX2-induced intestinal metaplasia in human gastric organoids derived from induced pluripotent stem cells. iScience 25 104314 PMID: 35602937

Fan et al (2022) Identification of metabolic pathways underlying FGF1 and CHIR99021-mediated cardioprotection. iScience 25 104447 PMID: 35707727

Hiromitsu et al (2022) Streamlined and quantitative detection of chimerism using digital PCR. Sci Rep 12 10223 PMID: 35715477

Aleksandra et al (2022) Defined conditions for long-term expansion of murine and human alveolar epithelial stem cells in three-dimensional cultures. STAR Protoc 3 101447 PMID: 35712012

Janet L et al (2022) A combined human gastruloid model of cardiogenesis and neurogenesis. iScience 25 104486 PMID: 35721464

Yen-Wen et al (2022) Tumor endothelial marker 1 is upregulated in heart after cardiac injury and participates in cardiac remodeling. Sci Rep 12 10532 PMID: 35732643

Wenqi et al (2022) Reengineering Ponatinib to Minimize Cardiovascular Toxicity. Cancer Res 82 2777-2791 PMID: 35763671

Vincent et al (2022) Dynamic enlargement and mobilization of lipid droplets in pluripotent cells coordinate morphogenesis during mouse peri-implantation development. Nat Commun 13 3861 PMID: 35790717

Chong-Shan et al (2022) LRRK2 is required for CD38-mediated NAADP-Ca2+ signaling and the downstream activation of TFEB (transcription factor EB) in immune cells. Autophagy 18 204-222 PMID: 34313548

Bruce et al (2022) Human alveolar type 2 epithelium transdifferentiates into metaplastic KRT5+ basal cells. Nat Cell Biol 24 10-23 PMID: 34969962

Francois et al (2019) Cortical Neurogenesis Requires Bcl6-Mediated Transcriptional Repression of Multiple Self-Renewal-Promoting Extrinsic Pathways. Neuron 103 1096-1108.e4 PMID: 31353074

Chi-chung et al (2019) Activation of Hedgehog Signaling Promotes Development of Mouse and Human Enteric Neural Crest Cells, Based on Single-Cell Transcriptome Analyses. Gastroenterology 157 1556-1571.e5 PMID: 31442438

David J et al (2019) The role of cardiac transcription factor NKX2-5 in regulating the human cardiac miRNAome. Sci Rep 9 15928 PMID: 31685864

Ajeet P et al (2019) Enteroendocrine Progenitor Cell-Enriched miR-7 Regulates Intestinal Epithelial Proliferation in an Xiap-Dependent Manner. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol 9 447-464 PMID: 31756561

James R et al (2019) Cardiomyocyte functional screening: interrogating comparative electrophysiology of high-throughput model cell systems. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol 317 C1256-C1267 PMID: 31577512

Guangming et al (2019) Excluding Oct4 from Yamanaka Cocktail Unleashes the Developmental Potential of iPSCs. Cell Stem Cell 25 737-753.e4 PMID: 31708402

Steven M et al (2019) Cardiac regeneration using human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived biomaterial-free 3D-bioprinted cardiac patch in vivo. J Tissue Eng Regen Med 13 2031-2039 PMID: 31408915

Kumi et al (2019) Engineering of human cardiac muscle electromechanically matured to an adult-like phenotype. Nat Protoc 14 2781-2817 PMID: 31492957

Konstantinos-Dionysios et al (2019) Derivation of self-renewing lung alveolar epithelial type II cells from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Protoc 14 3303-3332 PMID: 31732721

Tracy C et al (2019) Wnt signaling inhibition by monensin results in a period of Hippo pathway activation during intestinal adaptation in zebrafish. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 316 G679-G691 PMID: 30896968

Ryan M et al (2019) Specification of positional identity in forebrain organoids. Nat Biotechnol 37 436-444 PMID: 30936566

Kevin et al (2019) Derivation of enteric neuron lineages from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Protoc 14 1261-1279 PMID: 30911172

Kyoung Hwa et al (2019) Basal-type lumenogenesis in extraembryonic endoderm stem cells models the early visceral endoderm. J Cell Sci 132 PMID: 31492758

Olga et al (2019) Human Colonoid Monolayers to Study Interactions Between Pathogens, Commensals, and Host Intestinal Epithelium. J Vis Exp PMID: 31033964

Puspa R et al (2019) End-to-End Platform for Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Manufacturing. Int J Mol Sci 21 PMID: 31877727

Fan et al (2019) Long-Term Stability and Differentiation Potential of Cryopreserved cGMP-Compliant Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Int J Mol Sci 21 PMID: 31877913

Sebastian et al (2019) Development of MAP4 Kinase Inhibitors as Motor Neuron-Protecting Agents. Cell Chem Biol 26 1703-1715.e37 PMID: 31676236

Peidong et al (2019) Canonical Wnt5b Signaling Directs Outlying Nkx2.5+ Mesoderm into Pacemaker Cardiomyocytes. Dev Cell 50 729-743.e5 PMID: 31402282

Matthew W et al (2019) GSK3 regulates hair cell fate in the developing mammalian cochlea. Dev Biol 453 191-205 PMID: 31185200

Marc et al (2019) Human SNORA31 variations impair cortical neuron-intrinsic immunity to HSV-1 and underlie herpes simplex encephalitis. Nat Med 25 1873-1884 PMID: 31806906

Martín I et al (2019) Human neural crest induction by temporal modulation of WNT activation. Dev Biol 449 99-106 PMID: 30826399

Thomas C et al (2019) Direct Reprogramming of Human Neurons Identifies MARCKSL1 as a Pathogenic Mediator of Valproic Acid-Induced Teratogenicity. Cell Stem Cell 25 103-119.e6 PMID: 31155484

Eva et al (2019) Axon-seq for in Depth Analysis of the RNA Content of Neuronal Processes. Bio Protoc 9 e3312 PMID: 33654821

Josef M et al (2019) Generation of blood vessel organoids from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Protoc 14 3082-3100 PMID: 31554955

Pentao et al (2019) In vitro establishment of expanded-potential stem cells from mouse pre-implantation embryos or embryonic stem cells. Nat Protoc 14 350-378 PMID: 30617351

Sommer et al (2018) Th17 lymphocytes induce neuronal cell death in a human iPSC-based model of Parkinson's disease. Cell Stem Cell 23 123 PMID: 29979986

Rajamani et al (2018) Super-Obese Patient-Derived iPSC Hypothalamic Neurons Exhibit Obesogenic Signatures and Hormone Responses. Cell Stem Cell 22 698 PMID: 29681516

Lynch et al (2018) Submucosal Gland Myoepithelial Cells Are Reserve Stem Cells That Can Regenerate Mouse Tracheal Epithelium. Cell Stem Cell 22 653 PMID: 29656941

Pham et al (2018) Generation of human vascularized brain organoids. Neuroreport 29 588 PMID: 29570159

McCauley et al (2018) Derivation of Epithelial-Only Airway Organoids from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Curr Protoc Stem Cell Biol 45 e51 PMID: 30040246

Tumelty et al (2018) Identification of direct negative cross-talk between the SLIT2 and bone morphogenetic protein-Gremlin signaling pathways. J Biol Chem 293 3039 PMID: 29317497

Chal et al (2016) Generation of human muscle fibers and satellite-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Nat.Protoc. 11 1833 PMID: 27583644

Darrell N et al (2020) Generation of mesenchyme free intestinal organoids from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Nat Commun 11 215 PMID: 31924806

Mou et al (2016) Dual SMAD Signaling Inhibition Enables Long-Term Expansion of Diverse Epithelial Basal Cells Cell: Stem Cell 19 217 PMID: 27320041

Lu et al (2016) Generation of serotonin neurons from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Biotechnol 34 89 PMID: 26655496

Capowski et al (2016) Regulation of WNT Signaling by VSX2 During Optic Vesicle Patterning in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem Cells 34 2625 PMID: 27301076

Zimmerlin et al (2016) Tankyrase inhibition promotes a stable human naïve pluripotent state with improved functionality. Development 143 4368 PMID: 27660325

Lin et al (2016) HP Promotes Cardiac Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Chemically Defined Albumin-Free Medium, Enabling Consistent Manufacture of Cardiomyocytes. Stem Cells Transl Med PMID: 27591141

Shelton et al (2014) Derivation and expansion of PAX7-positive muscle progenitors from human and mouse embryonic stem cells. Dis Model Mech 3 516 PMID: 25241748

Wu et al (2014) A novel suppressive effect of alcohol dehydrogenase 5 in neuronal differentiation. Stem Cell Res 289 20193 PMID: 24895131

Skelton et al (2014) SIRPA, VCAM1 and CD34 identify discrete lineages during early human cardiovascular development. J Cachexia Sarcopenia Muscle 13 172 PMID: 24968096

Laween et al (2023) Bioengineering human intestinal mucosal grafts using patient-derived organoids, fibroblasts and scaffolds. Nat Protoc 18 108-135 PMID: 36261633

Bo et al (2023) Generation of dorsoventral human spinal cord organoids via functionalizing composite scaffold for drug testing. iScience 26 105898 PMID: 36647382

Stefan et al (2023) Pump-less, recirculating organ-on-a-chip (rOoC) platform. Lab Chip 23 591-608 PMID: 36655405

Ludo et al (2023) FUS-ALS hiPSC-derived astrocytes impair human motor units through both gain-of-toxicity and loss-of-support mechanisms. Mol Neurodegener 18 5 PMID: 36653804

Serena et al (2023) Automated high-content imaging in iPSC-derived neuronal progenitors. SLAS Discov 28 42-51 PMID: 36610640

C Frank et al (2023) Long-Term SMN- and Ncald-ASO Combinatorial Therapy in SMA Mice and NCALD-ASO Treatment in hiPSC-Derived Motor Neurons Show Protective Effects. Int J Mol Sci 24 PMID: 36835624

Sara et al (2023) Expansion of ventral foregut is linked to changes in the enhancer landscape for organ-specific differentiation. Nat Cell Biol 25 481-492 PMID: 36690849

Mustafa et al (2023) A Robust Pipeline for the Multi-Stage Accelerated Differentiation of Functional 3D Cortical Organoids from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Curr Protoc 3 e641 PMID: 36633423

Qian et al (2023) Spatial multiomics map of trophoblast development in early pregnancy. Nature 616 143-151 PMID: 36991123

Yulia V et al (2023) Engineered cardiac tissue model of restrictive cardiomyopathy for drug discovery. Cell Rep Med 4 100976 PMID: 36921598

Steven P et al (2023) Genetic dissection of the pluripotent proteome through multi-omics data integration. Cell Genom 3 100283 PMID: 37082146

Jie et al (2023) Establishing Bipotential Human Lung Organoid Culture System and Differentiation to Generate Mature Alveolar and Airway Organoids. Bio Protoc 13 e4657 PMID: 37113328

Dmitry et al (2023) Airway and Lung Organoids from Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Can Be Used to Assess CFTR Conductance. Int J Mol Sci 24 PMID: 37047264

Mark et al (2023) Axon guidance genes modulate neurotoxicity of ALS-associated UBQLN2. Elife 12 PMID: 37039476

Stefan et al (2023) Quantitative chemometric phenotyping of three-dimensional liver organoids by Raman spectral imaging. Cell Rep Methods 3 100440 PMID: 37159662

Nadine et al (2023) A distal lung organoid model to study interstitial lung disease, viral infection and human lung development. Nat Protoc PMID: 37165073

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Gustavo et al (2021) Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Intestinal Organoids Model SARS-CoV-2 Infection Revealing a Common Epithelial Inflammatory Response. Stem Cell Reports 16 940-953 PMID: 33852884

John M et al (2021) A weakened interface in the P182L variant of HSP27 associated with severe Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy causes aberrant binding to interacting proteins. EMBO J 40 e103811 PMID: 33644875

Su-Jin et al (2021) Bioactive Lipid O-cyclic phytosphingosine-1-phosphate Promotes Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells into Cardiomyocytes via ALK3/BMPR Signaling. Int J Mol Sci 22 PMID: 34209900

David et al (2021) Mitochondrial bioenergetic deficits in C9orf72 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis motor neurons cause dysfunctional axonal homeostasis. Acta Neuropathol 141 257-279 PMID: 33398403

Anne G et al (2021) A universal gene correction approach for FKRP-associated dystroglycanopathies to enable autologous cell therapy. Cell Rep 36 109360 PMID: 34260922

Ha Neui et al (2021) The thrombin receptor links brain derived neurotrophic factor to neuron cholesterol production, resiliency and repair after spinal cord injury. Neurobiol Dis 152 105294 PMID: 33549720

Paul et al (2021) Sarcomere function activates a p53-dependent DNA damage response that promotes polyploidization and limits in vivo cell engraftment. Cell Rep 35 109088 PMID: 33951429

Andrew et al (2021) Patient-specific iPSCs carrying an SFTPC mutation reveal the intrinsic alveolar epithelial dysfunction at the inception of interstitial lung disease. Cell Rep 36 109636 PMID: 34469722

Giovanni et al (2021) CHAF1A Blocks Neuronal Differentiation and Promotes Neuroblastoma Oncogenesis via Metabolic Reprogramming. Adv Sci (Weinh) 8 e2005047 PMID: 34365742

Michael et al (2021) Pharmacological Manipulation of Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Pathway in Human Neural Precursor Cells Alters Their Differentiation Potential and Neuronal Yield. Front Mol Neurosci 14 680018 PMID: 34421534

Bin et al (2021) Myogenin suppresses apoptosis induced by angiotensin II in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 552 84-90 PMID: 33743352

Philip J et al (2021) Transplantable human motor networks as a neuron-directed strategy for spinal cord injury. iScience 24 102827 PMID: 34381965

Adrian S et al (2021) The miR-199a/214 Cluster Controls Nephrogenesis and Vascularization in a Human Embryonic Stem Cell Model. Stem Cell Reports 16 134-148 PMID: 33306987

Paolo et al (2021) Paediatric gastric organoids as a tool for disease modelling and clinical translation. Pediatr Surg Int 37 317-324 PMID: 33495862

Xinwen et al (2021) Host metabolism dysregulation and cell tropism identification in human airway and alveolar organoids upon SARS-CoV-2 infection. Protein Cell 12 717-733 PMID: 33314005

Kolja et al (2021) Local non-pituitary growth hormone is induced with aging and facilitates epithelial damage. Cell Rep 37 110068 PMID: 34910915

Yun et al (2021) Mechanical stimulation enhances development of scaffold-free, 3D-printed, engineered heart tissue grafts. J Tissue Eng Regen Med 15 503-512 PMID: 33749089

Qian et al (2021) Characterization of primary models of human trophoblast. Development 148 PMID: 34651188

Alexander et al (2021) Generation of Mouse Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Trunk-like Structures: An in vitro Model of Post-implantation Embryogenesis. Bio Protoc 11 e4042 PMID: 34250208

Britta et al (2021) Wnt signaling mediates acquisition of blood-brain barrier properties in naïve endothelium derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Elife 10 PMID: 34755601

Juan Carlos et al (2021) Chimeric contribution of human extended pluripotent stem cells to monkey embryos ex vivo. Cell 184 2020-2032.e14 PMID: 33861963

Shingo et al (2021) Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into functional airway basal stem cells. STAR Protoc 2 100683 PMID: 34355203

Marcos et al (2021) The connectome of neural crest enhancers reveals regulatory features of signaling systems. Dev Cell 56 1268-1282.e6 PMID: 33852891

Andrew et al (2021) SARS-CoV-2 Disrupts Proximal Elements in the JAK-STAT Pathway. J Virol 95 e0086221 PMID: 34260266

J Travis et al (2021) Actinin BioID reveals sarcomere crosstalk with oxidative metabolism through interactions with IGF2BP2. Cell Rep 36 109512 PMID: 34380038

Sean P et al (2021) Differentiation of Brain Pericyte-Like Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Crest. Curr Protoc 1 e21 PMID: 33484491

Andras et al (2021) Derivation of Airway Basal Stem Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Cell Stem Cell 28 79-95.e8 PMID: 33098807

Hiromitsu et al (2021) Generation of Functional Organs Using a Cell-Competitive Niche in Intra- and Inter-species Rodent Chimeras. Cell Stem Cell 28 141-149.e3 PMID: 33373620

Bianca et al (2021) Prednisolone rescues Duchenne muscular dystrophy phenotypes in human pluripotent stem cell-derived skeletal muscle in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 118 PMID: 34260377

Bruce R et al (2021) Bioengineered optogenetic model of human neuromuscular junction. Biomaterials 276 121033 PMID: 34403849

Alfonso Martinez et al (2021) In vitro teratogenicity testing using a 3D, embryo-like gastruloid system. Reprod Toxicol 105 72-90 PMID: 34425190

Boyang et al (2021) Generation of mouse-human chimeric embryos. Nat Protoc 16 3954-3980 PMID: 34215863

Danny et al (2021) NRF1 association with AUTS2-Polycomb mediates specific gene activation in the brain. Mol Cell 81 4663-4676.e8 PMID: 34637754

Ruili et al (2021) Human Pluripotent Stem Cells for High-Throughput Drug Screening and Characterization of Small Molecules. Methods Mol Biol 2454 811-827 PMID: 34128205

Arun et al (2021) Responsiveness to perturbations is a hallmark of transcription factors that maintain cell identity in vitro. Cell Syst 12 885-899.e8 PMID: 34352221

Rafael et al (2021) Neuronal enhancers are hotspots for DNA single-strand break repair. Nature 593 440-444 PMID: 33767446

Fiachra H. et al (2021) A diamidobenzimidazole STING agonist protects against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Sci Immunol 6 PMID: 34010139

Canfield et al (2019) An isogenic neurovascular unit model comprised of human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived brain microvascular endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes, and neurons. Fluids Barriers CNS 16 25 PMID: 31387594

Regent et al (2019) Automation of human pluripotent stem cell differentiation toward retinal pigment epithelial cells for large-scale productions. Sci Rep 9 10646 PMID: 31337830

Suzuki et al (2019) Directed differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into mature stratified bladder urothelium. Sci Rep 9 10506 PMID: 31324820

Garcia et al (2019) Huntington's Disease Patient-Derived Astrocytes Display Electrophysiological Impairments and Reduced Neuronal Support. Front Neurosci 13 669 PMID: 31316341

Chiu et al (2019) NMDAR-Activated PP1 Dephosphorylates GluN2B to Modulate NMDAR Synaptic Content. Cell Rep 28 332 PMID: 31291571

Canizo et al (2019) A dose-dependent response to MEK inhibition determines hypoblast fate in bovine embryos. BMC Dev Biol 19 13 PMID: 31272387

Xu et al (2019) Generation of pig induced pluripotent stem cells using an extended pluripotent stem cell culture system. Stem Cell Res Ther 10 193 PMID: 31248457

Yang (2017) Mutual reinforcement between telomere capping and canonical Wnt signalling in the intestinalstem cell niche. Nat Commun 8 14766 PMID: 28303901

Yang et al (2017) Derivation of pluripotent stem cells with in vivo embryonic and extraembryonic potency. Cell. 169 243 PMID: 28388409

Tchieu et al (2017) A modular platform for differentiation of human PSCs into all major ectodermal lineages. Cell Stem Cell. 21 399 PMID: 28886367

Xi (2017) In Vivo Human Somitogenesis Guides Somite Development from hPSCs. Cell Rep. 18 1573 PMID: 28178531

Kotton et al (2017) Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells into functional lung alveolar epithelial cells. Cell Stem Cell. 21 472 PMID: 28965766

Zhang et al (2015) Small Molecules Efficiently Reprogram Human Astroglial Cells into Functional Neurons. Cell Stem Cell 17 735 PMID: 26481520

Watmuff et al (2015) Human pluripotent stem cell derived midbrain PITX3(eGFP/w) neurons: a versatile tool for pharmacological screening and neurodegenerative modeling. Front Cell Neurosci 9 104 PMID: 25873861

Zhang et al (2015) GSK3β-Dzip1-Rab8 cascade regulates ciliogenesis after mitosis. PLoS Biol 13 e1002129 PMID: 25860027

Francipane and Lagasse (2015) The lymph node as a new site for kidney organogenesis. Stem Cells Transl Med 4 295 PMID: 25646529

Kearns et al (2015) Functional annotation of native enhancers with a Cas9-histone demethylase fusion. Nat Methods 12 401 PMID: 25775043

Jain et al (2015) Plasticity of Hopx(+) type I alveolar cells to regenerate type II cells in the lung. Nat Commun 6 6727 PMID: 25865356

Huebsch et al (2015) Automated Video-Based Analysis of Contractility and Calcium Flux in Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Cultured over Different Spatial Scales. Tissue Eng Part C Methods 21 467 PMID: 25333967

Hackland et al (2019) FGF Modulates the Axial Identity of Trunk hPSC-Derived Neural Crest but Not the Cranial-Trunk Decision. Stem Cell Reports 12 920 PMID: 31091435

Regier et al (2019) User-defined morphogen patterning for directing human cell fate stratification. Sci Rep 9 6433 PMID: 31015521

Schneider et al (2019) User-Friendly and Parallelized Generation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Microtissues in a Centrifugal Heart-on-a-Chip. Tissue Eng Part A 25 786 PMID: 30968738

Haidar et al (2019) Neuropathy-causing mutations in HSPB1 impair autophagy by disturbing the formation of SQSTM1/p62 bodies. Autophagy 15 1051 PMID: 30669930

Ranganathan et al (2019) Evaluating Shigella flexneri Pathogenesis in the Human Enteroid Model. Infect Immun 87 PMID: 30642900

Gentsch et al (2019) Maternal pluripotency factors initiate extensive chromatin remodelling to predefine first response to inductive signals. Nat Commun 10 4269 PMID: 31537794

Wen et al (2017) Heparin Promotes Cardiac Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Chemically Defined Albumin-Free Medium, Enabling Consistent Manufacture of Cardiomyocytes. Stem Cells Transl Med 6 527-538 PMID: 28191759

Kenichiro et al (2017) Self-organized amniogenesis by human pluripotent stem cells in a biomimetic implantation-like niche. Nat Mater 16 419-425 PMID: 27941807

Atsushi et al (2017) Generation of Mouse and Human Organoid-Forming Intestinal Progenitor Cells by Direct Lineage Reprogramming. Cell Stem Cell 21 456-471.e5 PMID: 28943029

Bradley E et al (2017) Single-Cell Transcriptomic Analysis of Primary and Metastatic Tumor Ecosystems in Head and Neck Cancer. Cell 171 1611-1624.e24 PMID: 29198524

Kirmo et al (2017) Generation of a SOX2 reporter human induced pluripotent stem cell line using CRISPR/SaCas9. Stem Cell Res 22 16-19 PMID: 28952927

Liam R et al (2017) Use of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Derived-Cardiomyocytes to Study Drug-Induced Cardiotoxicity. Curr Protoc Toxicol 73 22.5.1-22.5.22 PMID: 28777443

Christoforou et al (2017) Core Transcription Factors, MicroRNAs, and Small Molecules Drive Transdifferentiation of Human Fibroblasts Towards The Cardiac Cell Lineage. Sci Rep 7 40285 PMID: 28071742

Zhao et al (2017) Efficient differentiation of TBX18(+)/WT1(+) epicardial-like cells from human pluripotent stem cells using small molecular compounds. Stem Cells Dev 26 528 PMID: 27927069

Chesnokova et al (2016) GH is permissive for neoplastic colon growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 113 E3250 PMID: 27226307

Nakaoka et al (2016) Allelic Imbalance in Regulation of ANRIL through Chromatin Interaction at 9p21 Endometriosis Risk Locus. PLoS Genet 12 e1005893 PMID: 27055116

Fattahi et al (2016) Deriving human ENS lineages for cell therapy and drug discovery in Hirschsprung disease. Nature 531 105 PMID: 26863197

Leung et al (2016) WNT/β-catenin signaling mediates human neural crest induction via a pre-neural border intermediate. Development 143 398 PMID: 26839343

Alan O et al (2016) Modeling renal progenitors - defining the niche. Differentiation 91 152-8 PMID: 26856661

Zhaohui et al (2016) Efficient and Controlled Generation of 2D and 3D Bile Duct Tissue from Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Spheroids. Stem Cell Rev Rep 12 500-8 PMID: 27138846

Ying et al (2015) Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell NEUROG2 Dual Knockin Reporter Lines Generated by the CRISPR/Cas9 System. Stem Cells Dev 24 2925-42 PMID: 26414932

Haixia et al (2015) Reprogramming fibroblasts toward cardiomyocytes, neural stem cells and hepatocytes by cell activation and signaling-directed lineage conversion. Nat Protoc 10 959-73 PMID: 26042385

Gao et al (2019) Establishment of porcine and human expanded potential stem cells. Nat Cell Biol 21 687 PMID: 31160711

Park et al (2019) Dual stem cell therapy synergistically improves cardiac function and vascular regeneration following myocardial infarction. Nat Commun 10 3123 PMID: 31311935

Genga et al (2019) Single-Cell RNA-Sequencing-Based CRISPRi Screening Resolves Molecular Drivers of Early Human Endoderm Development. Cell Rep 27 708 PMID: 30995470

Liu et al (2018) CRISPR-based chromatin remodeling of the endogenous Oct4 or Sox2 locus enables reprogramming to pluripotency. Cell Stem Cell. 22 252 PMID: 29358044

Bantounas et al (2018) Generation of functioning nephrons by implanting human pluripotent stem cell-derived kidney progenitors. Stem Cell Reports 10 766 PMID: 29429961

Bar-Nur et al (2018) Direct reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts into functional skeletal muscle progenitors. Stem Cell Reports 10 1505 PMID: 29742392

Christine E et al (2018) Differentiation and Contractile Analysis of GFP-Sarcomere Reporter hiPSC-Cardiomyocytes. Curr Protoc Hum Genet 96 21.12.1-21.12.12 PMID: 29364522

George A et al (2018) Efficient transdifferentiation of human dermal fibroblasts into skeletal muscle. J Tissue Eng Regen Med 12 e918-e936 PMID: 28101909

James R et al (2018) 3D Printed Stem-Cell Derived Neural Progenitors Generate Spinal Cord Scaffolds. Adv Funct Mater 28 PMID: 32595422

Bin et al (2018) APC Inhibits Ligand-Independent Wnt Signaling by the Clathrin Endocytic Pathway. Dev Cell 44 566-581.e8 PMID: 29533772

Ying et al (2018) 3D Modeling of Esophageal Development using Human PSC-Derived Basal Progenitors Reveals a Critical Role for Notch Signaling. Cell Stem Cell 23 516-529.e5 PMID: 30244870

Guangming et al (2018) Esrrb Unlocks Silenced Enhancers for Reprogramming to Naive Pluripotency. Cell Stem Cell 23 266-275.e6 PMID: 29910149

Haojia et al (2018) Comparative Analysis and Refinement of Human PSC-Derived Kidney Organoid Differentiation with Single-Cell Transcriptomics. Cell Stem Cell 23 869-881.e8 PMID: 30449713

Wei et al (2018) iPSCs from a Hibernator Provide a Platform for Studying Cold Adaptation and Its Potential Medical Applications. Cell 173 851-863.e16 PMID: 29576452

Jonathan G et al (2018) Force Generation via β-Cardiac Myosin, Titin, and α-Actinin Drives Cardiac Sarcomere Assembly from Cell-Matrix Adhesions. Dev Cell 44 87-96.e5 PMID: 29316444

Woo et al (2016) Enhancing a Wnt-Telomere Feedback Loop Restores Intestinal Stem Cell Function in a Human Organotypic Model of Dyskeratosis Congenita Cell Stem Cell 19 397 PMID: 27545506

Takasato et al (2016) Generation of kidney organoids from human pluripotent stem cells. Nature Protocols 11 1681 PMID: 27560173

Foulke-Abel et al (2016) Human Enteroids as a Model of Upper Small Intestinal Ion Transport Physiology and Pathophysiology. Nat Commun 150 638 PMID: 26677983

Long et al (2016) Integrin signalling regulates the expansion of neuroepithelial progenitors and neurogenesis via Wnt7a and Decorin. Nat Biotechnol 7 10354 PMID: 26838601

Huang et al (2016) Generating trunk neural crest from human pluripotent stem cells. PLoS One 6 19727 PMID: 26812940

Naujok et al (2014) Cytotoxicity and activation of the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in mouse embryonic stem cells treated with four GSK3 inhibitors. BMC Res Notes 7 273 PMID: 24779365

Orlova et al (2014) Functionality of endothelial cells and pericytes from human pluripotent stem cells demonstrated in cultured vascular plexus and zebrafish xenografts. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 34 177 PMID: 24158517

Mitchell J et al (2014) Hematopoietic differentiation of pluripotent stem cells in culture. Methods Mol Biol 1185 181-94 PMID: 25062629

Yoon-Young et al (2014) Determination of Functional Activity of Human iPSC-Derived Hepatocytes by Measurement of CYP Metabolism. Methods Mol Biol 1357 383-94 PMID: 25410290

Peter et al (2014) Generation, expansion and functional analysis of endothelial cells and pericytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Nat Protoc 9 1514-31 PMID: 24874816

Kenneth et al (2014) Transcriptional profiling of Wnt3a mutants identifies Sp transcription factors as essential effectors of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway in neuromesodermal stem cells. PLoS One 9 e87018 PMID: 24475213

Yoon-Young et al (2014) In Vitro Modeling of Alcohol-Induced Liver Injury Using Human-Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells. Methods Mol Biol 1353 271-83 PMID: 25520290

Lorenz et al (2013) Dual-SMAD Inhibition/WNT Activation-Based Methods to Induce Neural Crest and Derivatives from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Methods Mol Biol 1307 329-43 PMID: 24301074

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Reviews for CHIR 99021

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IPS culture.
By Murali K Yanda on 09/27/2022
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Mouse
Cell Line/Tissue: ips

Mouse ips cells culture with 2i media.

review image

2i medium culture.
By Yu Chen on 07/11/2022
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Mouse
Cell Line/Tissue: ESC

ESC 2i medium culture; 3 uM

review image

ESC culture.
By Xiaoyu Zhang on 11/23/2021
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Mouse
Cell Line/Tissue: ESC

In vitro cell culture addition. The image shows the morphology of ESC colonies after conversion using the treatment condition. This condition supported the conversion and long-term maintenance of dome-shaped ESCs from primed ESCs.

review image

Differentiation to cartilage.
By Julieta O'Flaherty on 12/08/2020
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Human
Cell Line/Tissue: iPSCs

I used at 3uM to generate cartilage from iPSCs, worked really well. Keep at -80C for long term storage

review image

Kidney organoids.
By Kirsty Rooney on 11/21/2020
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Human
Cell Line/Tissue: MAN13 hESCs

I use 8uM of CHIR to differentiate hESCs to intermediate mesoderm and then to kidney organoids

review image

Differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells.
By Paul Humphreys on 11/20/2020
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Human
Cell Line/Tissue: hPSCs

Directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) towards mesoderm lineages. Used at concentration of 3uM. Very effective in induction of mesoderm markers.

Perform titration against your cell line to optimise correct concentration.

review image

iPSC differentiation.
By Stephanie Hsiao on 10/13/2020
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Human
Cell Line/Tissue: iPSC

Differentiation of human iPSCs into hematopoietic progenitor cells.

iPSC culture medium supplemented with 4 uM of CHIR99021.

review image

It worked good.
By Anonymous on 07/04/2020
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Mouse
Cell Line/Tissue: iPSC

Reprogramming media comprises of 3 μM CHIR99021 and 0.5 μM A-83-01.

The cells were then maintained in RM 15 days with fresh media every other day

PMID: 29681516
review image

For maintenance of stem cells pluripotency.
By Anonymous on 06/25/2020
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Mouse
Cell Line/Tissue: Neural Stem Cells

For directed differentiation to neural, cells are treated with GSK-3 inhibitor, CHIR99021 to induce canonical WNT signaling. This product gave me reproducible results.

It's better to aliquot and keep it at -80°C for long term storage.

PMID: 27133794
review image

Works as intended..
By Anonymous on 04/04/2020
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Rat
Cell Line/Tissue: Sprague-Dawley rats primary neuronal

10 μM for 2 h

PMID: 31291571 Reference
review image

Differentiation of human dopaminergic neurons from stem cells.
By Anonymous on 02/17/2020
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Human
Cell Line/Tissue: Stem Cells

Used this product routinely to differentiate dopaminergic neurons from human stem cells.

review image

The hiPSCs were maintained with Essential 8 Flex Medium with CHIR 99021.
By Anonymous on 02/08/2020
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Human
Cell Line/Tissue: ipsc

1.4 μM

PMID: 29939162
review image

All iPSC lines and R1 mouse ES cells were maintained on feeders in KO-DMEM (Invitrogen) with 3 mM CHIR99021, and 1 mM PD0325901..
By Anonymous on 12/04/2019
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Mouse
Cell Line/Tissue: ipsc

All iPSC lines and R1 mouse ES cells were maintained on feeders in KO-DMEM (Invitrogen) with 3 mM CHIR99021, and 1 mM PD0325901.

PMID: 29358044
review image

works great for Wnt activation.
By avinash waghray on 08/08/2019
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Human

In Tissue culture for growing basal cells

PMID: 27320041

Check the maintenance of naive pluripotency in 2i.
By Megha PB on 07/18/2018
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Mouse
Cell Line/Tissue: E14TG2a

Culture mouse ES cells in 2i media and without 2i to assess differentiation. Only the cells in 2i are pluripotent while mES cells cultured in -2i for 48 hours exit naive pluripotency.

review image

reliable product.
By Pinyuan Tian on 07/05/2018
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Human
Cell Line/Tissue: pluripotent stem cells

For directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells to kidney organoids, cells are treated with GSK-3 inhibitor, CHIR99021 to induce canonical WNT signaling. CHIR99021 concentration and differentiation time period are the key factors for this protocol. I found this product gave me reproducible results.

Although the datasheet says store at -20°C, it's better to aliquot and keep it at -80°C for long term storage.

review image

Literature in this Area

Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!

*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.

Stem Cell Research Product Guide

Stem Cell Research Product Guide

This product guide provides a background to the use of small molecules in stem cell research and lists over 200 products for use in:

  • Self-renewal and Maintenance
  • Differentiation
  • Reprogramming
  • Organoid Generation
  • GMP and Ancillary Material Grade Products
Stem Cells Scientific Review

Stem Cells Scientific Review

Written by Kirsty E. Clarke, Victoria B. Christie, Andy Whiting and Stefan A. Przyborski, this review provides an overview of the use of small molecules in the control of stem cell growth and differentiation. Key signaling pathways are highlighted, and the regulation of ES cell self-renewal and somatic cell reprogramming is discussed. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.

Alzheimer's Disease Poster

Alzheimer's Disease Poster

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating and progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia, affecting approximately 30% of individuals aged over 85 years. This poster summarizes the cellular and molecular mechanisms of AD.

Stem Cells Poster

Stem Cells Poster

Written by Rebecca Quelch and Stefan Przyborski from Durham University (UK), this poster describes the isolation of pluripotent stem cells, their maintenance in culture, differentiation, and the generation and potential uses of organoids.

Pathways for CHIR 99021

Wnt Signaling Pathway

Wnt Signaling Pathway

The Wnt pathway is involved in cellular differentiation and proliferation in adult tissues and also during embryogenesis. Disturbances within the pathway may lead to the formation of tumors and promote metastasis.