Stem Cell Differentiation
Stem cell differentiation involves the changing of a cell to a more specialized cell type, involving a switch from proliferation to specialization. This involves a succession of alterations in cell morphology, membrane potential, metabolic activity and signal responsiveness.
Stem Cell Differentiation Target Files
- Cancer Stem Cell Differentiation
- Cardiomyocyte Stem Cells
- ESCs and iPSCs
- Hepatocyte Stem Cells
- Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Stem cell differentiation involves the changing of a cell to a more specialized cell type, involving a switch from proliferation to specialization. This involves a succession of alterations in cell morphology, membrane potential, metabolic activity and responsiveness to certain signals. Differentiation leads to the commitment of a cell to developmental lineages and the acquisition of specific functions of committed cells depending upon the tissue in which they will finally reside. Stem cell differentiation is tightly regulated by signaling pathways and modifications in gene expression.
Stem cells can be categorized into groups depending on their ability to differentiate.
- Totipotent: can differentiate into all cell types;
- Pluripotent: can differentiate into almost all cell types;
- Multipotent: can differentiate into a related family of cell types;
- Oligopotent: can differentiate into a few different cells;
- Unipotent: can produce one cell type only.
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cells that differentiate as a result of signaling mechanisms. These are tightly controlled by most growth factors, cytokines and epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling. ESCs divide into two cells: one is a duplicate stem cell (the process of self-renewal) and the other daughter cell is one which will differentiate. The daughter cells divides and after each division it becomes more specialized. When it reaches a mature cell type downstream (for example, becomes a red blood cell) it will no longer divide. The ability of ESCs to differentiate is currently being researched for the treatment of many diseases including Parkinson's disease and cancer.
Adult or 'somatic' stem cells are thought to be undifferentiated. Their primary role is to self-renew and maintain or repair the tissue in which they reside.
View all pluripotent stem cell resources available from Bio-Techne.
Resources for Stem Cell Differentiation
Blog Post: Regenerative Medicine - From Bench to Clinic
Regenerative medicine is the repair or replacement of damaged or diseased tissue to restore normal tissue function. This blog post discusses the development of a new cell therapy product derived from PSCs for regenerative medicine use in Parkinson's disease.Read Now!
Blog Post: Small Molecules for Neuronal Differentiation of Stem Cells
Neurons derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are a source of considerable therapeutic potential for neurodegenerative diseases. This blog post outlines the development of a small molecule-based protocol for the differentiation of human induced PSCs into functional cortical neurons.Read Now!
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Literature for Stem Cell Differentiation
Tocris offers the following scientific literature for Stem Cell Differentiation to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
Stem Cells Scientific Review
Written by Kirsty E. Clarke, Victoria B. Christie, Andy Whiting and Stefan A. Przyborski, this review provides an overview of the use of small molecules in the control of stem cell growth and differentiation. Key signaling pathways are highlighted, and the regulation of ES cell self-renewal and somatic cell reprogramming is discussed. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.
Stem Cell Workflow Poster
Stem cells have potential as a source of cells and tissues for research and treatment of disease. This poster summarizes some key protocols demonstrating the use of small molecules across the stem cell workflow, from reprogramming, through self-renewal, storage and differentiation to verification. Advantages of using small molecules are also highlighted.