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Reprogramming refers to the regression of a specialized cell to a simpler state, resulting in cells with stem-like properties, or the direct reprogramming of one specialized cell type into another. The process of cells regressing to a stem-like state occurs naturally, mostly for repair and regeneration in aged or damaged tissues.
|Cat. No.||Product Name / Activity|
|Induces reprogramming of fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes|
|Enhances the generation of iPSCs; increases reprogramming efficiency|
|DNA methyltransferase inhibitor. Improves reprogramming efficiency|
|1544||(±)-Bay K 8644|
|Ca2+ channel activator (L-type); aids generation of iPSCs from MEFs|
|Potent and selective RXR agonist; induces brown adipogenic reprogramming from myoblasts|
|GLP and G9a inhibitor; potentiates induction of iPSCs|
|Enhances Yamanaka factor reprogramming and replaces Oct-4 in transcription factor-mediated reprogramming; synthetic thymidine analog|
|Used as ROCK inhibitor; also inhibits PKG, PKA and PKC|
|Highly potent and selective GSK-3 inhibitor; can be used in differentiation and reprogramming of stem cells|
|Highly selective GSK-3 inhibitor; enables reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts into iPS cells|
|Enhances reprogramming to pluripotency; facilitates telomere maintenance and increases telomere length|
|Notch signaling pathway inhibitor; stimulates formation of iPSCs|
|4703||3-Deazaneplanocin A hydrochloride|
|Histone methyltransferase inhibitor; enhances Oct4 expression in chemically-induced pluripotent stem cells|
|Allows formation of extended pluripotent stem (EPS) cells; also M2-selective antagonist|
|Converts epiblast stem cells to ESCs and promotes ESC self-renewal; CK1 inhibitor|
|Promotes generation of iPSCs from somatic cells; inhibits GSK-3β and cdks|
|Allows formation of extended pluripotent stem (EPS) cells; also antibiotic|
|Induces neurogenesis in mature skeletal muscle cells|
|Oct3/4 inducer; induces expression of pluripotent-associated genes|
|Oct4 activator; enhances iPSC reprogramming efficiency|
|Oct4 activator; enhances iPSC reprogramming efficiency|
|Selective inhibitor of MEK1/2; enhances generation of iPSCs|
|Inhibitor of p53-mitochondrial binding|
|Selective TGF-βRI inhibitor; enhances reprogramming efficiency|
|Non-nucleoside DNA methyltransferase inhibitor; enhances efficiency of iPSC generation|
|Replaces SOX2 in reprogramming protocols; potent and selective inhibitor of TGF-βRI, ALK4 and ALK7|
|Promotes reprogramming of fibroblasts to neural stem-like cells|
|Improves the efficiency of fibroblast reprogramming and induction of iPSCs; ROCK inhibitor|
|Irreversible inhibitor of LSD1; enables reprogramming of mouse embryonic fibroblasts into iPS cells|
|Potent histone deacetylase inhibitor; induces accelerated dedifferentiation of primordial germ cells|
|Retinoic acid analog; enhances efficiency of reprogramming in CiPSCs|
|2815||Valproic acid, sodium salt|
|Histone deacetylase inhibitor; enables induction of pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells|
Reprogramming refers to the regression of a specialized cell to a simpler state, resulting in cells with stem-like properties, or the direct reprogramming of one specialized cell type into another. The process of cells regressing to a stem-like state occurs naturally, mostly for repair and regeneration in aged or damaged tissues, being also known as dedifferentiation. Reprogramming can be artificially induced using a combination of transcription factors and/or chemical reagents. This was first demonstrated by Takahashi and Yamanaka in 2006. They reprogrammed mouse fibroblasts into cells having embryonic stem cell-like properties by the introduction of the transcription factors Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc and KIf4, using viral vectors; the resulting cells were designated induced pluripotent stem cells, or iPSCs.
The use of transcription factors in the reprogramming of cells, however, is not only inefficient but is also associated with a risk of introducing genetic mutations when inserting a transgene into the target cell's genome. Subsequent research has shown that transcription factors can be replaced with various chemical reagents in the generation of iPSCs. The use of chemicals to reprogram cells reduces the potential for introducing genetic mutations into the cells, as well as lowering the risk of tumor formation. It can also improve the efficiency of reprogramming.
iPSCs are valuable in biomedical research as they are pluripotent and can therefore theoretically be turned into any cell type. As such they have potential in drug screening and toxicity testing. They are also likely to be of use in regenerative medicine, to repair damaged tissue, or in organ transplantation to generate human organ tissues. The use of iPSCs in medicine has the advantage that the cells are autologous (self), limiting the risk of immune rejection and eliminating the need for embryonic stem cells.
Functionally mature cells may also be reprogrammed directly into a different specialized cell type without passing through the iPSC state, a process that is known as direct lineage reprogramming. This process also occurs naturally and is known as transdifferentiation.
Tocris offers the following scientific literature for Reprogramming to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
Written by Kirsty E. Clarke, Victoria B. Christie, Andy Whiting and Stefan A. Przyborski, this review provides an overview of the use of small molecules in the control of stem cell growth and differentiation. Key signaling pathways are highlighted, and the regulation of ES cell self-renewal and somatic cell reprogramming is discussed. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.
Stem cells have potential as a source of cells and tissues for research and treatment of disease. This poster summarizes some key protocols demonstrating the use of small molecules across the stem cell workflow, from reprogramming, through self-renewal, storage and differentiation to verification. Advantages of using small molecules are also highlighted.