ESCs and iPSCs

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are found in the inner cell mass of blastocysts. They are considered immortal as they have an unlimited capacity for self-renewal in an undifferentiated state. Like ESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (also known as iPS cells or iPSCs) are also pluripotent stem cells that can be generated directly from adult cells, they can propagate indefinitely.

Products
Background
Literature
Cat No Product Name / Activity
4845 A 939572
Induces cell death of undifferentiated human ESCs; SCD1 inhibitor
3851 Cardiogenol C hydrochloride
Induces cardiomyocyte differentiation in ESCs
4475 Cardionogen 1
Inhibitor of Wnt/β -catenin signaling; induces ES cell cardiac differentiation
5233 CCG 1423
Induces intermediate mesoderm differentiation from ESCs; Rho/SRF pathway inhibitor
5329 CKI 7 dihydrochloride
CK1 inhibitor; induces retinal cell differentiation from human ESCs and iPSCs
1623 Cyclopamine
Inhibitor of Hedgehog (Hh) signaling; induces differentiation of hESCs into hormone expressing endocrine cells
1141 Dibutyryl-cAMP, sodium salt
Promotes differentiation of hPSCs to dopaminergic neurons; cell-permeable cAMP analog
4126 DMH-1
BMP receptor ALK2 inhibitor; promotes iPSC neurogenesis in combination with SB 431542 (Cat. No. 1614)
3176 DMSO, sterile filtered
Improves responsiveness of hESCs and hiPSCs to differentiation signals
3093 Dorsomorphin dihydrochloride
BMP type I receptor inhibitor; promotes cardiomyocyte differentiation in mouse ESCs
1041 1-EBIO
KCa activator; promotes ESC differentiation into cardiomyocytes
4011 EC 23
Synthetic retinoid; induces neural differentiation of hESCs
6292 ELARR>GG
Negative control for ELA-32 (Cat.No.6291)
6291 ELA-32 (human)
Apelin receptor agonist; promotes self-renewal and primes hESCs toward endoderm lineage
5254 FH 1
Enhances iPSC-derived hepatocyte differentiation and maturation
4650 I-BET 151 dihydrochloride
BET bromodomain inhibitor; also promotes differentiation of hiPSCs into megakaryocytes
4015 IDE 1
Induces definitive endoderm formation in mouse and human ESCs
4016 IDE 2
Induces definitive endoderm formation in mouse and human ESCs
5068 ITD 1
Selective inhibitor of TGF-β signaling; induces cardiomyocyte differentiation in ESCs
5214 IWP 4
Potent inhibitor of Wnt/β-catenin signaling; induces cardiomyocyte differentiation of human ESCs and iPSCs
4731 KY 02111
Inhibits canonical Wnt signaling. Promotes differentiation of human ESCs and iPSCs into cardiomyocytes
6053 LDN 193189 dihydrochloride
Potent and selective ALK2 and ALK3 inhibitor; promotes neural induction of hPSCs
6068 Lin28 1632
RNA binding protein Lin28 inhibitor; promotes mESC differentiation
4847 PluriSln 1
Inhibitor of SCD1; selectively eliminates undifferentiated hPSCs from culture
1292 Rapamycin
mTOR inhibitor; also drives hPSC differentiation to mesendoderm and blood progenitor cells
0695 Retinoic acid
Endogenous retinoic acid receptor agonist; promotes ESC differentiation
4366 SAG
Enhances neuronal differentiation of iPSCs into dopaminergic neurons; Smo agonist
4923 Shz 1
Activator of early cardiac genes in pluripotent stem cells; induces differentiation in M-PBMCs
6424 Sodium Cromoglicate
Promotes ESCs/iPSCs differentiation into pancreatic endocine islet cells
3741 Stauprimide
Inhibits NME2 nuclear translocation; primes ESCs for differentiation
4484 STF 31
Eliminates undifferentiated hPSCs from culture; also NAMPT and GLUT1 inhibitor
3835 TWS 119
GSK-3β inhibitor; induces neuronal differentiation in ESCs
5148 Wnt-C59
Wnt signaling inhibitor; induces differentiation of iPSCs to cardiomyocytes

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are found in the inner cell mass of blastocysts. They are considered immortal as they have an unlimited capacity for self-renewal in an undifferentiated state. ESCs have the ability to differentiate into cells from all three germ layers (endoderm, mesoderm and ectoderm).

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cells and differentiation is tightly controlled by growth factor, cytokines and epigenetic processes such as DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling. ESCs divide into two cells: they can either differentiated in to two identical daughter cells, or one undergoes self-renewal and produces an identical stem cell, and the other cell be will differentiated.

Induced pluripotent stem cells (also known as iPS cells or iPSCs) can be generated directly from adult cells. Like ESCs, they can propagate indefinitely. Given the right cocktail of factors and or small molecules, they can be reprogrammed to differentiate into many types of somatic cells, including neurons, cardiomyocytes, and hepatocytes. Stem cell therapies using these types of cells are now entering the clinic.

ESCs and iPSCs have great potential for use in regenerative medicine to repair damaged tissue, and in organ transplantation to generate human organ tissues. The use of iPSCs in medicine has the advantage that the cells are autologous, limiting the risk of immune rejection.

Stem cells offer the potential for treating many diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's or Huntington's diseases, or repairing damaged tissue from myocardial infarction.

Literature for ESCs and iPSCs

Tocris offers the following scientific literature for ESCs and iPSCs to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!

*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.


Cancer

Cancer Research Product Guide

A collection of over 750 products for cancer research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Cancer Metabolism
  • Epigenetics in Cancer
  • Receptor Signaling
  • Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Repair
  • Angiogenesis
  • Invasion and Metastasis
Stem Cells

Stem Cells Scientific Review

Written by Kirsty E. Clarke, Victoria B. Christie, Andy Whiting and Stefan A. Przyborski, this review provides an overview of the use of small molecules in the control of stem cell growth and differentiation. Key signaling pathways are highlighted, and the regulation of ES cell self-renewal and somatic cell reprogramming is discussed. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.

Stem Cells

Stem Cells Poster

Written by Rebecca Quelch and Stefan Przyborski from Durham University (UK), this poster describes the isolation of pluripotent stem cells, their maintenance in culture, differentiation, and the generation and potential uses of organoids.