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Valproic acid, sodium salt is a histone deacetylase inhibitor (IC50 = 400 μM) that exhibits anticancer, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Displays anticonvulsive activity via an increase in GABA levels and decreases Aβ production in animal models of Alzheimer's disease. Also attenuates NMDA-mediated excitation, blocks voltage-gated Na+ channels and modulates firing of neurons. Enables induction of pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells by Oct4 and Sox2. Can induce autophagy by inhibiting inositol synthesis. Identified by chemoinformatics as targeting human host proteins that interact with SARS-CoV-2.
For more information about how Valproic acid, sodium salt may be used, see our protocol:Highly Efficient Generation of CiPSCs from MEFs
Valproic acid, sodium salt is also offered as part of the Tocriscreen 2.0 Max, Tocriscreen Epigenetics Library, Tocriscreen FDA-Approved Drugs and Tocriscreen Stem Cell Library. Find out more about compound libraries available from Tocris.
|Storage||Desiccate at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 166.19. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||6.02 mL||30.09 mL||60.17 mL|
|5 mM||1.2 mL||6.02 mL||12.03 mL|
|10 mM||0.6 mL||3.01 mL||6.02 mL|
|50 mM||0.12 mL||0.6 mL||1.2 mL|
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Phiel et al (2001) Histone deacetylase is a direct target of valproic acid, a potent anticonvulsant, mood stabilizer, and teratogen. J.Biol.Chem. 276 36734 PMID: 11473107
Kostrouchova et al (2007) Valproic acid, a molecular lead to multiple regulatory pathways. Folia Biologica 53 37 PMID: 17448293
Kim et al (2007) Histone deacetylase inhibitors exhibit anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in a rat permanent ischemic model of stroke: multiple mechanisms of action. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 321 892 PMID: 17371805
Qing et al (2008) Valproic acid inhibits Aβ production, neuritic plaque formation, and behavioural defects in Alzheimer's disease mouse models. J.Exp.Med. 205 2781 PMID: 18955571
Huangfu et al (2008) Induction of pluripotent stem cells from primary human fibroblasts with only Oct4 and Sox2. Nat.Biotechnol. 26 1269 PMID: 18849973
Gordon et al (2020) A SARS-CoV-2-human protein-protein interaction map reveals drug targets and potential drug-repurposing. Nature 583 PMID: 32353859
If you know of a relevant reference for Valproic acid, sodium salt, please let us know.
Keywords: Valproic acid, sodium salt, Valproic acid, sodium salt supplier, Histone, deacetylases, inhibitors, inhibits, Increases, GABA, levels, anticonvulsant, HDAC, GABAA, GABAC, Receptors, GABAB, stem, cells, epigenetics, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, severe, acute, respiratory, syndrome, VPA, Sodium, Valproate, Miscellaneous, Stem, Cell, Reprogramming, Autophagy, Voltage-gated, Channels, Non-selective, HDACs, Non-Selective, Coronavirus, 2815, Tocris Bioscience
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Valproic acid, sodium salt include:
Caires-Júnior (2018) Discordant congenital Zika syndrome twins show differential in vitro viral susceptibility of neural progenitor cells. Nat Commun 9 475 PMID: 29396410
Chen et al (2015) Overexpression of the type 1 adenylyl cyclase in the forebrain leads to deficits of behavioral inhibition. Nat Commun 35 339 PMID: 25568126
Wang et al (2014) The interplay between histone deacetylases and c-Myc in the transcriptional suppression of HPP1 in colon cancer. Cancer Biol Ther 15 1198 PMID: 24919179
Zeltner et al (2016) Capturing the biology of disease severity in a PSC-based model of familial dysautonomia. Nat Med 22 1421 PMID: 27841875
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Corresponding proteins were seen to play important roles in cellular activity and could influence several important pathways by treat with VPA.
We studied VPA's ability to alter expression of certain genes. Corresponding proteins were seen to play important roles in cellular activity and could influence several important pathways such as cell cycle control, differentiation, DNA repair, and apoptosis.
The following protocol features additional information for the use of Valproic acid, sodium salt (Cat. No. 2815).
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!
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Written by Susanne Müller-Knapp and Peter J. Brown, this review gives an overview of the development of chemical probes for epigenetic targets, as well as the impact of these tool compounds being made available to the scientific community. In addition, their biological effects are also discussed. Epigenetic compounds available from Tocris are listed.
Produced by Tocris and updated in 2014, the epigenetics research bulletin gives an introduction into mechanisms of epigenetic regulation, and highlights key Tocris products for epigenetics targets including:
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic destructive inflammatory autoimmune disease that results from a breakdown in immune tolerance, for reasons that are as yet unknown. This poster summarizes the pathology of RA and the inflammatory processes involved, as well as describing some of the epigenetic modifications associated with the disease and the potential for targeting these changes in the discovery of new treatments.