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Cat.No. 1099 - Forskolin | C22H34O7 | CAS No. 66575-29-9
Description: Adenylyl cyclase activator
Chemical Name: [3R-(3α,4aβ,5β,6β,6aα,10α,10aβ,10bα)]-5-(Acetyloxy)-3-ethenyldodecahydro-6,10,10b-trihydroxy-3,4a,7,7,10a-pentamethyl-1H-naphtho[2,1-b]pyran-1-one
Purity: ≥98% (HPLC)
Citations (55)
Protocols (1)

Biological Activity

Cell-permeable activator of adenylyl cyclase. Hypotensive and vasodilatory agent. Induces neuronal differentiation in stem cells and in several neuroblastoma. Used to reprogram mouse embryonic fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells in combination with three other small molecules (Cat. Nos. 3742, 4423 and 4703).

Available as part of the PKA Tocriset™. Negative Control also available.

Compound Libraries

Forskolin is also offered as part of the Tocriscreen Plus, Tocriscreen Epigenetics Toolbox and Tocriscreen Stem Cell Toolbox. Find out more about compound libraries available from Tocris.

Technical Data

M. Wt 410.51
Formula C22H34O7
Storage Desiccate at -20°C
Purity ≥98% (HPLC)
CAS Number 66575-29-9
PubChem ID 47936
Smiles C=C[C@](C3)(C)O[C@]2(C)[C@@H](OC(C)=O)[C@@H](O)[C@@]1([H])C(C)(C)CC[C@H](O)[C@@](C)1[C@](O)2C3=O

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.

Solubility Data

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
DMSO 10.26 25
ethanol 4.11 10

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 410.51. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to solvent of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 2.44 mL 12.18 mL 24.36 mL
5 mM 0.49 mL 2.44 mL 4.87 mL
10 mM 0.24 mL 1.22 mL 2.44 mL
50 mM 0.05 mL 0.24 mL 0.49 mL

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Product Datasheets

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
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Safety Datasheet


References are publications that support the products' biological activity.

Awad et al (1983) Interactions of forskolin and adenylate cyclase. J.Biol.Chem. 258 2960 PMID: 6681815

Laurenza et al (1989) Forskolin: a specific stimulator of adenylyl cyclase or a diterpene with multiple sites of action? TiPS 10 442 PMID: 2692256

Seamon et al (1983) Structure-activity relationships for activation of adenylate cyclase by the diterpene forskolin and its derivatives. J.Med.Chem. 26 436 PMID: 6681845

Kim et al (2005) cAMP induces neuronal differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase/MAPK. Neuroreport 16 1357 PMID: 16056139

Hou et al (2013) Pluripotent stem cells induced from mouse somatic cells by small-molecule compounds. 341 651 PMID: 23868920

If you know of a relevant reference for Forskolin, please let us know.

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View all Adenylyl Cyclase Activators

Keywords: Forskolin, supplier, Adenylyl, cyclases, activator, Inositol, cAMP, Signaling, Signalling, adenylate, stem, cells, organoids, Adenylyl, Cyclase, Enzyme, Substrates, /, Activators, Neural, Stem, Cells, Adenylyl, Cyclase, Tocris Bioscience

55 Citations for Forskolin

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Forskolin include:

Liu et al (2018) CRISPR-based chromatin remodeling of the endogenous Oct4 or Sox2 locus enables reprogramming to pluripotency. Cell Stem Cell. 22 252 PMID:

Tozzi et al (2018) Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated neuroprotection in a G2019S Lrrk2 genetic model of Parkinson’s disease. Cell Death Dis 9 204 PMID: 29434188

Muñoz-Llancao et al (2015) Exchange Protein Directly Activated by cAMP (EPAC) Regulates Neuronal Polarization through Rap1B. Biochim Biophys Acta 35 11315 PMID: 26269639

Parnell et al (2015) Phosphorylation of ezrin on Thr567 is required for the synergistic activation of cell spreading by EPAC1 and protein kinase A in HEK293T cells. Mol Metab 1853 1749 PMID: 25913012

Li et al (2015) Increased biogenesis of glucagon-containing secretory granules and glucagon secretion in BIG3-knockout mice. Mol Pharmacol 4 246 PMID: 25737957

Emery et al (2015) Cyclic Adenosine 3',5'-Monophosphate Elevation and Biological Signaling through a Secretin Family Gs-Coupled G Protein-Coupled Receptor Are Restricted to a Single Adenylate Cyclase Isoform. J Cell Mol Med 87 928 PMID: 25769305

Jansen et al (2015) Prostaglandin E2 promotes MYCN non-amplified neuroblastoma cell survival via β-catenin stabilization. Stem Cell Reports 19 210 PMID: 25266063

Cooke et al (2015) Morphine-induced internalization of the L83I mutant of the rat μ-opioid receptor. Cell Death Dis 172 593 PMID: 24697554

Baron et al (2015) The NLRP3 inflammasome is activated by nanoparticles through ATP, ADP and adenosine. Sci Rep 6 e1629 PMID: 25654762

Ang et al (2015) The short-chain fatty acid receptor GPR43 is transcriptionally regulated by XBP1 in human monocytes. Ann Clin Transl Neurol 5 8134 PMID: 25633224

Walker et al (2015) A second trigeminal CGRP receptor: function and expression of the AMY1 receptor. Nat Commun 2 595 PMID: 26125036

Siuda et al (2015) Optodynamic simulation of β-adrenergic receptor signalling. Eneuro 6 8480 PMID: 26412387

Polito et al (2015) Selective Effects of PDE10A Inhibitors on Striatopallidal Neurons Require Phosphatase Inhibition by DARPP-32(1,2,3). J Neurosci 2 PMID: 26465004

Zhu et al (2015) Different patterns of electrical activity lead to long-term potentiation by activating different intracellular pathways. Pharmacol Res Perspect 35 621 PMID: 25589756

Presley et al (2015) Preclinical evaluation of SMM-189, a cannabinoid receptor 2-specific inverse agonist. Biochem Pharmacol 3 e00159 PMID: 26196013

Brust et al (2015) New functional activity of aripiprazole revealed: Robust antagonism of D2 dopamine receptor-stimulated Gβγ signaling. Cell Rep 93 85 PMID: 25449598

Ben-Simon et al (2015) A Combined Optogenetic-Knockdown Strategy Reveals a Major Role of Tomosyn in Mossy Fiber Synaptic Plasticity. Pflugers Arch 12 396 PMID: 26166572

Broadbent et al (2015) The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator is an extracellular chloride sensor. Sci Rep 467 1783 PMID: 25277268

Jia et al (2013) Age-dependent regulation of synaptic connections by dopamine D2 receptors. Nat Neurosci 16 1627 PMID: 24121738

Ehrlich et al (2013) Prostaglandin E receptor EP1 forms a complex with dopamine D1 receptor and directs D1-induced cAMP production to adenylyl cyclase 7 through mobilizing G(βγ) subunits in human embryonic kidney 293T cells. Mol Pharmacol 84 476 PMID: 23842570

Pale et al (2013) Cyclic AMP stimulates neurite outgrowth of lamprey reticulospinal neurons without substantially altering their biophysical properties. Neuroscience 245 74 PMID: 23603516

Wiseman et al (2013) Proteasomal degradation of eukaryotic elongation factor-2 kinase (EF2K) is regulated by cAMP-PKA signaling and the SCFβTRCP ubiquitin E3 ligase. J Biol Chem 288 17803 PMID: 23640883

Luo (2017) β2-adrenoreceptor Inverse Agonist Down-regulates Muscarine Cholinergic Subtype-3 Receptor and Its Downstream Signal Pathways in Airway Smooth Muscle Cells in vitro. Scientific Reports 7 39905 PMID: 28051147

Buznikov et al (2010) A putative 'pre-nervous' endocannabinoid system in early echinoderm development. Dev Neurosci 32 1 PMID: 19907129

Garavaglia et al (2010) Adaptation of NS cells growth and differentiation to high-throughput screening-compatible plates. BMC Neurosci 11 7 PMID: 20085655

Hosoi et al (2002) Identification of a novel human eicosanoid receptor coupled to G(i/o). J Biol Chem 277 31459 PMID: 12065583

Avanzato et al (2016) Activation of P2X7 and P2Y11 purinergic receptors inhibits migration and normalizes tumor-derived endothelial cells via cAMP signaling Scientific Reports 6 32602 PMID: 27586846

Chan et al (2016) ApoE4 expression accelerates hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits by enhancing Aβ impairment of insulin signaling in an Alzheimer's disease mouse model. Cell 6 26119 PMID: 27189808

Tao et al (2013) cAMP level modulates scleral collagen remodeling, a critical step in the development of myopia. Br J Pharmacol 8 e71441 PMID: 23951163

Sohn et al (2013) Melanocortin 4 receptors reciprocally regulate sympathetic and parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. J Mol Endocrinol 152 612 PMID: 23374353

Goffin et al (2010) Dopamine-dependent tuning of striatal inhibitory synaptogenesis. PLoS One 30 2935 PMID: 20181591

Schapitz et al (2010) Neuroligin 1 is dynamically exchanged at postsynaptic sites. J Neurosci 30 12733 PMID: 20861378

Waheed et al (2014) Naringenin inhibits the growth of Dictyostelium and MDCK-derived cysts in a TRPP2 (polycystin-2)-dependent manner. Br J Pharmacol 171 2659 PMID: 24116661

Chou et al (2014) Prostaglandin E2 promotes features of replicative senescence in chronically activated human CD8+ T cells. PLoS One 9 e99432 PMID: 24918932

Vandame et al (2014) The spatio-temporal dynamics of PKA activity profile during mitosis and its correlation to chromosome segregation. Cell Cycle 13 3232 PMID: 25485503

Muthusamy et al (2014) A method to identify and isolate pluripotent human stem cells and mouse epiblast stem cells using lipid body-associated retinyl ester fluorescence. Stem Cell Reports 3 169 PMID: 25068130

Adelfinger et al (2014) GABAB receptor phosphorylation regulates KCTD12-induced K+ current desensitization. Biochem Pharmacol 91 369 PMID: 25065880

Lee et al (2012) The calcium-sensing receptor regulates the NLRP3 inflammasome through Ca2+ and cAMP. Nature 492 123 PMID: 23143333

Bolognini et al (2012) AM630 behaves as a protean ligand at the human cannabinoid CB2 receptor. Br J Pharmacol 165 2561 PMID: 21615724

Mitra et al (2012) Heterogeneous reallocation of presynaptic efficacy in recurrent excitatory circuits adapting to inactivity. Nat Neurosci 15 250 PMID: 22179109

Korboukh et al (2012) Orally active adenosine A(1) receptor agonists with antinociceptive effects in mice. J Med Chem 55 6467 PMID: 22738238

Tran et al (2012) Dynamic mass redistribution assays decode surface influence on signaling of endogenous purinergic P2Y receptors. Assay Drug Dev Technol 10 37 PMID: 22066912

Bonetti and Surace (2010) Mouse embryonic retina delivers information controlling cortical neurogenesis. J Mol Cell Cardiol 5 e15211 PMID: 21170332

Brzosko et al (2015) Retroactive modulation of spike timing-dependent plasticity by dopamine. Elife 4 PMID: 26516682

Elliott et al (2015) Somatostatin and insulin mediate glucose-inhibited glucagon secretion in the pancreatic α-cell by lowering cAMP. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 308 E130 PMID: 25406263

Roscioni et al (2009) PKA and Epac cooperate to augment bradykinin-induced interleukin-8 release from human airway smooth muscle cells. Respir Res 10 88 PMID: 19788733

Byrnes et al (2009) Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 activation inhibits microglial associated inflammation and neurotoxicity. J Clin Invest 57 550 PMID: 18816644

Belgacem and Borodinsky (2015) Inversion of Sonic hedgehog action on its canonical pathway by electrical activity. Eur J Neurosci 112 4140 PMID: 25829542

Shelton et al (2014) Derivation and expansion of PAX7-positive muscle progenitors from human and mouse embryonic stem cells. Br J Pharmacol 3 516 PMID: 25241748

Felizola et al (2014) PCP4: a regulator of aldosterone synthesis in human adrenocortical tissues. Glia 52 159 PMID: 24403568

Yang et al (2014) PKA catalytic subunit compartmentation regulates contractile and hypertrophic responses to β-adrenergic signaling. J Biol Chem 66 83 PMID: 24225179

Hook et al (2012) Dopaminergic modulation of ganglion-cell photoreceptors in rat. J Neurosci 35 507 PMID: 22304466

Kaufman et al (2012) Opposing roles of synaptic and extrasynaptic NMDA receptor signaling in cocultured striatal and cortical neurons. J Neurosci 32 3992 PMID: 22442066

Horváth et al (2012) A new cannabinoid CB2 receptor agonist HU-910 attenuates oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death associated with hepatic ischaemia/reperfusion injury. J Neurosci 165 2462 PMID: 21449982

Rao et al (2007) Prolonged wakefulness induces experience-dependent synaptic plasticity in mouse hypocretin/orexin neurons. PLoS One 117 4022 PMID: 18060037

Do you know of a great paper that uses Forskolin from Tocris? If so please let us know.

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Protocols for Forskolin

The following protocol) features additional information for the use of Forskolin (Cat. No. 1099).

Literature in this Area

Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!

*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.


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