Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs)

Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) are multipotent precursors, that exhibit self-renewal capacity and the ability to regenerate all the different blood and immune cell types. This process, known as hematopoiesis, occurs in adult bone marrow during embryonic development and throughout adulthood. HSCs are used for treating blood related cancers (leukemia, lymphoma), hereditary blood disorders, and to replenish cells lost due to chemotherapy. HSCs are also of great interest for gene therapy.

Literature (4)
Pathways (1)
Cat. No. Product Name / Activity
5619 N-Acetylcysteine amide
Maintains HSC function in culture; also GSH precursor; antioxidant
3979 Alexidine dihydrochloride
Preserves functional hematopoietic stem cells ex vivo; also inhibitor of PTPMT1
3299 AMD 3100 octahydrochloride
Promotes HSCs mobilization and expansion
3194 BIO
Promotes HSC proliferation; also highly selective GSK-3 inhibitor; acts as Wnt activator
5051 BIO 5192
Promotes HSCs and progenitor mobilization; also highly potent and selective inhibitor of integrin α4β1 (VLA-4)
6047 BOP
Promotes HSCs mobilization; also α9β1/α4β1 integrin inhibitor
6996 BOP-JF549
Yellow fluorescent dual α9β1/α4β1 integrin inhibitor comprising BOP conjugated to Janelia Fluor® 549; fluorogenic; photostable
6997 BOP-JF646
Red fluorescent dual α9β1/α4β1 integrin inhibitor comprising BOP conjugated to Janelia Fluor® 646; fluorogenic; photostable
7153 BRD 0539
Cell permeable and reversible Cas9 inhibitor
1231 Brefeldin A
Enhances CRISPR-mediated HDR efficiency; also disrupts protein translocation to Golgi
5050 CASIN
Induces HSC mobilization; also Cdc42 inhibitor; restores cell polarity
3858 CH 223191
Promotes HSCs expansion in vitro; also potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) antagonist
4423 CHIR 99021
Promotes HSC proliferation; also highly selective GSK-3 inhibitor; acts as Wnt activator
5331 CPI 203
Promotes HSC expansion; also BET Bromodomain inhibitor
5702 DiD perchlorate
HSC stain; also lipophilic fluorescent reagent
4027 16,16-Dimethyl Prostaglandin E2
Regulates HSC development
6019 Diprotin A
Enhances HSCs viability after harvesting; also dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitor
5304 FICZ
Facilitates hPSC to HSC manufacture in vitro; also aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist;
1508 GW 9662
Promotes HSCs expansion; increases HSCs engraftment; also PPARγ antagonist
4840 KU 0060648
Enhances HDR efficiency and attenuates NHEJ frequency; also dual DNA-PK and PI 3-K inhibitor
2197 L-755,507
Enhances CRISPR-mediated HDR efficiency; also very potent and selective β3 partial agonist
7044 (±)-α-Lipoic acid
Maintains function of HSCs in culture; also antioxidant
6618 MB 05032
Promotes HSCs expansion; also potent FBPase inhibitor
4106 Nicotinamide
Promotes proliferation and expansion of HSC in vitro; also PARP1 inhibitor
2828 NU 7026
Improves HDR-mediated editing in HSCs; also selective DNA-PK inhibitor
2296 Prostaglandin E2
Promotes HSCs expansion; increases HSCs engraftment
4181 Ro 3306
Improves HDR-mediated editing in HSCs; also Cdk1 inhibitor
1202 SB 203580
Promotes ex vivo expansion of HSC; also p38 MAPK inhibitor
1614 SB 431542
Promotes HSCs proliferation; also inhibitor of TGF-βRI, ALK4 and ALK7
5342 SCR7 pyrazine
Enhances HDR efficiency
3784 Sildenafil citrate
Promotes HSCs mobilization
7086 StemRegenin 1
Promotes HSC expansion and engraftment; also aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) antagonist
5759 SW 033291
Promotes HSCs expansion and engraftment; also high affinity 15-PGDH inhibitor
3082 Tempol
Maintains HSC function in culture; also superoxide scavenger; Antioxidant
3114 Troglitazone
Inhibits cell growth of hematopoietic cell lines; also selective PPARγ agonist; antidiabetic agent
6002 Trolox
Maintains HSC function in culture; also antioxidant E derivative; Antioxidant
5493 XL 413 hydrochloride
Improves HDR-mediated editing in HSCs; also potent and selective Cdc7 inhibitor

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in the bone marrow and generate two progenitor cell lineages: myeloid and lymphoid cells. The myeloid cells include erythrocytes, platelets, neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils, monocytes/ macrophages, and dendritic cells. The lymphoid cells comprise natural killer cells, B and T lymphocytes.

model of hematopoietic hierarchy

Figure 1: Model of the hematopoietic hierarchy. HSCs have the potential to both self-renew and differentiate. Multipotent progenitors give rise to all hematopoietic cell types.

Adapted from Zhang et al. (2019) The physical microenvironment of hematopoietic stem cells and its emerging roles in engineering applications. Stem Cell Research & Therapy 10, 327. PMID: 31744536

Control of Hematopoietic Stem Cells

The HSC microenvironment in the bone marrow, called the niche, controls the balance between differentiation and self-renewal to ensure hematopoietic homeostasis. This process is highly regulated by the presence of transcription factors and cytokines. Manipulating individual cytokines is a possible approach to stimulate the regeneration and recovery of hematopoiesis following chemotherapy. The cytokine TGFβ for example, plays an important role in the quiescence and self-renewal of HSCs and can affect most cell types throughout the hematopoietic process.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for the treatment of blood and immune system disorders, such as leukemia and multiple myeloma, is the focus of considerable biomedical and clinical research. HSCs can be collected from adult bone marrow and umbilical cord blood, but mainly from peripheral blood. The aim of HSCT is to replenish the HSCs in the bone marrow following patient chemotherapy.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Gene Therapy

Gene therapy using hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) is a therapeutic approach for the treatment of multiple genetic and inherited disorders. HSPCs collected from bone marrow can be gene modified ex vivo and transferred back to the patient. There are two main approaches used for the gene modification of patient HSCs, integrating viral vectors (lentiviruses or gamma-retroviruses) and gene editing. The latter presents the advantage of a therapeutic gene site-specific insertion within the target genome of the HSCs. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) enables precise ex vivo gene editing in HSPCs. Small molecules can improve gene editing in HSPCs such as some inhibitors of non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) proteins (NU7441, NU7026, SCR7 pyrazine), or some modulators of the cell cycle (Nocodazol, Ro 3306, XL 413 hydrochloride).

hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy

Figure 2: Hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy (a) General overview of the gene-modified patient cells approaches: (1) Isolation of CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from bone marrow harvests or mobilized peripheral blood cell collections; (2) Ex vivo HSPCs gene modification; (3) Transplantation of the gene-modified patient cells (c) Genome editing using the clustered regularly interspaced palindrome repeat (CRISPR)-associated (Cas) platform. Abbreviations: crRNA, CRISPR RNA; DSBs, double-stranded breaks; HDR, homology directed repair; NHEJ, non-homologous end-joining; PAM, protospacer-adjacent motif; sgRNA, single guide RNA; tracrRNA, trans-activating CRISPR RNA.

Adapted from Salisbury-Ruf and Larochelle (2021) Advances and Obstacles in Homology-Mediated Gene Editing of Hematopoietic Stem Cells. J Clin Med 10, 513. PMID: 33535527

Visit our sister brand R&D Systems for a comprehensive list of Hematopoietic Stem Cell Products including premium quality antibodies, small molecules for HSCs differentiation, expansion media, HSC transcription factors and regulators, multicolor flow cytometry kit and methylcellulose media for colony forming cell assays.

Literature for Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs)

Tocris offers the following scientific literature for Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs) to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!

*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.

Stem Cell Research Product Guide

Stem Cell Research Product Guide

This product guide provides a background to the use of small molecules in stem cell research and lists over 200 products for use in:

  • Self-renewal and Maintenance
  • Differentiation
  • Reprogramming
  • Organoid Generation
  • GMP and Ancillary Material Grade Products
Stem Cells Scientific Review

Stem Cells Scientific Review

Written by Kirsty E. Clarke, Victoria B. Christie, Andy Whiting and Stefan A. Przyborski, this review provides an overview of the use of small molecules in the control of stem cell growth and differentiation. Key signaling pathways are highlighted, and the regulation of ES cell self-renewal and somatic cell reprogramming is discussed. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.

Stem Cell Workflow Poster

Stem Cell Workflow Poster

Stem cells have potential as a source of cells and tissues for research and treatment of disease. This poster summarizes some key protocols demonstrating the use of small molecules across the stem cell workflow, from reprogramming, through self-renewal, storage and differentiation to verification. Advantages of using small molecules are also highlighted.

Stem Cells Poster

Stem Cells Poster

Written by Rebecca Quelch and Stefan Przyborski from Durham University (UK), this poster describes the isolation of pluripotent stem cells, their maintenance in culture, differentiation, and the generation and potential uses of organoids.

Pathways for Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs)

TGF-β Signaling Pathway

TGF-β Signaling Pathway

The TGF-β signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of growth and proliferation of cells along with migration, differentiation and apoptosis.