Reversible inhibitor of protein translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi apparatus. Blocks binding of ADP-ribosylation factor to the Golgi apparatus and inhibits GDP-GTP exchange. Can be used to induce autophagy in mammalian cells. Also enhances CRISPR-mediated homology-directed repair (HDR) efficiency ~2-fold when applied at 100 nM, in human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs).
|Storage||Desiccate at -20°C|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 280.36. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to solvent of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|0.5 mM||7.13 mL||35.67 mL||71.34 mL|
|2.5 mM||1.43 mL||7.13 mL||14.27 mL|
|5 mM||0.71 mL||3.57 mL||7.13 mL|
|25 mM||0.14 mL||0.71 mL||1.43 mL|
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Ktistakis et al (1992) Action of brefeldin A blocked by activation of a pertussis-toxin-sensitive G protein. Nature 356 344 PMID: 1549178
Morinaga et al (1996) Isolation of a brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein for ADP ribosylation factor (ARF)1 and ARF3 that contains a Sec7-like domain. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A. 93 12856 PMID: 8917509
Tsai et al (1994) Identification of a brefeldin A-insensitive guanine nucleotide-exchange protein for ADP-ribosylation factor in bovine brain. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A. 91 3063 PMID: 8159707
Ding et al (2007) Differential effects of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy on cell survival. J.Biol.Chem. 282 4702 PMID: 17135238
Yu et al (2015) Small molecules enhance CRISPR genome editing in pluripotent stem cells. Cell Stem Cell 16 142 PMID: 25658371
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5 Citations for Brefeldin A
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Brefeldin A include:
Jing et al (2011) Concerted actions of NHERF2 and WNK4 in regulating TRPV5. J Neurosci 404 979 PMID: 21187068
Krokowski (2017) GADD34 function in protein trafficking promotes adaptation to hyperosmotic stress in human corneal cells. Cell Rep 21 2895 PMID: 29212034
Saba et al (2014) Rhinovirus-induced macrophage cytokine expression does not require endocytosis or replication. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 50 974 PMID: 24783958
Grassin-Delyle et al (2013) The expression and relaxant effect of bitter taste receptors in human bronchi. Respir Res 14 134 PMID: 24266887
Halff et al (2014) A novel mechanism for nicotinic potentiation of glutamatergic synapses. J Neurosci 34 2051 PMID: 24501347
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Literature in this Area
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