NF-κB and IκB

NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) is a rapidly acting primary transcription factor found in all cell types. It is involved in the cellular responses to stimuli such as cytokines and stress and plays a key role in regulating the immunological response to infections.

Products
Background
Literature
Pathways
Gene Data

Inhibitors

Cat No Product Name / Activity
4547 ACHP
Selective IKKα and IKKβ inhibitor; blocks NF-κB-DNA binding
4857 Amlexanox
Inhibitor of TBK1 and IKKε; antiallergic agent
4626 Andrographolide
Inhibits NFκB; blocks androgen receptor (AR) expression
1777 Arctigenin
Inhibitor of IκBα phosphorylation. Also inhibits MEK1
1743 Bay 11-7085
Irreversible inhibitor of TNF-α-induced IκBα phosphorylation
1744 Bay 11-7821
Indirect inhibitor of IκBα phosphorylation
5273 Bengamide B
Potent inhibitor of NF-κB activation
5300 BI 605906
Selective IKKβ inhibitor
4806 BMS 345541
Selective allosteric inhibitor of IKK; anti-inflammatory
5821 C-DIM 12
Inhibits NF-κB-dependent gene expression; Nurr1 activator
2743 Caffeic acid phenethyl ester
Specific inhibitor of NF-κB activation
2509 Cardamonin
Inhibitor of NF-κB activation; anti-inflammatory
3203 Celastrol
Inhibits TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation
4246 CID 2858522
Selectively inhibits PKC-induced NF-κB activation
6237 FPS ZM1
High affinity antagonist of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)
2637 Gliotoxin
Immunosuppressant; inhibits NF-κB and cytokine production
5672 GSK 319347A
Potent and selective IKKε inhibitor
4590 Honokiol
Blocks NF-κB activation; also anti-inflammatory and antioxidant
2861 HU 211
NF-κB inhibitor; decreases TNF-α, IL-6 and NO production. Also NMDA antagonist
1532 10Z-Hymenialdisine
Pan kinase inhibitor; blocks NF-κB activation
2539 IKK 16
Selective inhibitor of IKK
2611 IMD 0354
Inhibitor of IKKβ
5699 IP7e
Blocks NF-κB pathway; also potent Nurr1 activator
5846 IT 901
NF-κB c-Rel subunit inhibitor
2874 Luteolin
Blocks NF-κB activation
1748 MG 132
Inhibits NF-κB activation; proteasome and calpain inhibitor
4899 ML 120B dihydrochloride
Novel IKK2-selective inhibitor
4354 ML 130
Inhibits NOD1-induced NF-κB activation
4238 PF 184
Potent and selective IKKβ inhibitor
1554 Piceatannol
Inhibits TNF-induced NF-κB activation
1947 PR 39 (porcine)
IκBα inhibitor
3731 Pristimerin
Suppresses NF-κB activation
4569 PS 1145 dihydrochloride
Selective IKK inhibitor; orally active
4045 PSI
Prevents activation of NF-κB. Also inhibits the proteasome
0727 Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate ammonium
Inhibits NF-κB, prevents increase in NOS mRNA
6259 RAGE antagonist peptide
Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) antagonist
1778 Ro 106-9920
Inhibitor of NF-κB activation
3318 SC 514
IKKβ inhibitor; attenuates NF-κB-induced gene expression
5309 SP 100030
NF-κB and AP-1 dual inhibitor
4935 Sulfasalazine
Inhibitor of NF-κB activation; also inhibits SXC
4426 Tanshinone IIA
Inhibits NF-κB and AP-1 DNA binding. Displays antioxidant properties
2559 TPCA-1
Potent, selective inhibitor of IKKβ
2816 Withaferin A
Inhibits NF-κB activation
6111 Zoledronic Acid
NF-κB signaling inhibitor; also potent farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase inhibitor

Activators

Cat No Product Name / Activity
3906 Betulinic acid
Activates NF-κB; antitumor and anti-HIV agent. Also TGR5 agonist
6124 (R)-2-Hydroxyglutaric acid disodium salt
NF-κB activator; also KDM4A inhibitor
5739 Prostratin
NF-κB activator; also PKC activator

NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) is a rapidly acting primary transcription factor found in all cell types. It is involved in cellular responses to stimuli such as cytokines and stress and plays a key role in regulating the immune response to infection. In unstimulated cells NF-κB dimers are sequestered inactively in the cytoplasm by a protein complex called inhibitor of kappa B (IκB). IκB inactivates NF-κB by masking the nuclear localization signals (NLS).

Activation of NF-κB occurs via degradation of IκB, a process that is initiated by its phosphorylation by IκB kinase (IKK). Phosphorylated IκB becomes dissociated from NF-κB, unmasking the NLS. Phosphorylation also results in IκB ubiquitination and targeting to the proteasome. NF-κB can now enter the nucleus and regulate gene expression. NF-κB turns on expression of IκB forming a negative feedback loop.

Literature for NF-κB and IκB

Cancer

Cancer Research Product Guide

A collection of over 750 products for cancer research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Cancer Metabolism
  • Epigenetics in Cancer
  • Receptor Signaling
  • Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Repair
  • Angiogenesis
  • Invasion and Metastasis
Immunology

Immunology Product Listing

A collection of over 190 products for immunology research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Chemokine and Cytokine Signaling
  • Chemotaxis
  • Complement System
  • Immune Cell Signaling
  • Inflammation
Asthma

Asthma Poster

Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world, affecting over 300 million people. This poster highlights key pathways and new therapies used to treat the condition, including those currently in clinical development.

Pathways for NF-κB and IκB

NF-κB

NF-κB Signaling Pathway

NF-κB signaling plays an important role in inflammation, the innate and adaptive immune response and stress. Dysregulated signaling can occur in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

NF-κB Gene Data

Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
NF-κB1 (p105/p50) Human NFKB1 NM_003998 P19838
Mouse Nfkb1 NM_008689 P25799
Rat Nfkb1 L26267 Q63369
NF-κB2 (p100/p52) Human NFKB2 NM_002502 Q00653
Mouse Nfkb2 NM_019408 Q9WTK5
Rat Nfkb2 NM_001008349 Q5U2Z4
RelA (p65) Human RELA NM_021975 Q04206
Mouse Rela NM_009045 Q04207
Rat Rela NM_199267 NP_954888
RelB Human RELB NM_006509 Q01201
Mouse RelB NM_009046 NM_009046
c-Rel Human REL NM_002908 Q04864
Mouse Rel NM_009044 P15307
IκBα Human NFKBIA NM_020529 P25963
Mouse Nfkbia NM_010907 Q9Z1E3
Rat Nfkbia NM_001105720 Q63746
IκBβ Human NFKBIB NM_002503 Q15653
Mouse Nfkbib NM_010908 Q60778
Rat Nfkbib NM_030867 Q9JIA3
IκBδ Human NFKBID NM_032721 -
Mouse Nfkbid NM_172142 Q2TB02
IκBε Human NFKBIE NM_002503 Q15653
Mouse Nfkbie NM_008690 O54910
Rat Nfkbie NM_199111 Q6P780
IκBζ Human NFKBIZ NM_031419 Q9BYH8
Mouse Nfkbiz NM_030612 Q9EST8
Rat Nfkbiz NM_001107095 NP_001100565
Bcl-3 Human BCL3 NM_005178 P20749
Mouse Bcl3 NM_033601 Q9Z2F6
Rat Bcl3 NM_001109422 -