NF-κB and IκB

NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) is a rapidly acting primary transcription factor found in all cell types. It is involved in the cellular responses to stimuli such as cytokines and stress and plays a key role in regulating the immunological response to infections.

Products
Background
Gene Data

Inhibitors

Cat No Product Name / Activity
4547 ACHP
Selective IKKα and IKKβ inhibitor; blocks NF-κB-DNA binding
4857 Amlexanox
Inhibitor of TBK1 and IKKε; antiallergic agent
4626 Andrographolide
Inhibits NFκB; blocks androgen receptor (AR) expression
1777 Arctigenin
Inhibitor of IκBα phosphorylation. Also inhibits MEK1
1743 Bay 11-7085
Irreversible inhibitor of TNF-α-induced IκBα phosphorylation
1744 Bay 11-7821
Indirect inhibitor of IκBα phosphorylation
5273 Bengamide B
Potent inhibitor of NF-κB activation
5300 BI 605906
Selective IKKβ inhibitor
4806 BMS 345541
Selective allosteric inhibitor of IKK; anti-inflammatory
5821 C-DIM 12
Inhibits NF-κB-dependent gene expression; Nurr1 activator
2743 Caffeic acid phenethyl ester
Specific inhibitor of NF-κB activation
2509 Cardamonin
Inhibitor of NF-κB activation; anti-inflammatory
3203 Celastrol
Inhibits TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation
4246 CID 2858522
Selectively inhibits PKC-induced NF-κB activation
2637 Gliotoxin
Immunosuppressant; inhibits NF-κB and cytokine production
5672 GSK 319347A
Potent and selective IKKε inhibitor
4590 Honokiol
Blocks NF-κB activation; also anti-inflammatory and antioxidant
2861 HU 211
NF-κB inhibitor; decreases TNF-α, IL-6 and NO production. Also NMDA antagonist
1532 10Z-Hymenialdisine
Pan kinase inhibitor; blocks NF-κB activation
2539 IKK 16
Selective inhibitor of IKK
2611 IMD 0354
Inhibitor of IKKβ
5699 IP7e
Blocks NF-κB pathway; also potent Nurr1 activator
5846 IT 901
NF-κB c-Rel subunit inhibitor
2874 Luteolin
Blocks NF-κB activation
1748 MG 132
Inhibits NF-κB activation; proteasome and calpain inhibitor
4899 ML 120B dihydrochloride
Novel IKK2-selective inhibitor
4354 ML 130
Inhibits NOD1-induced NF-κB activation
4238 PF 184
Potent and selective IKKβ inhibitor
1554 Piceatannol
Inhibits TNF-induced NF-κB activation
1947 PR 39 (porcine)
IκBα inhibitor
3731 Pristimerin
Suppresses NF-κB activation
4569 PS 1145 dihydrochloride
Selective IKK inhibitor; orally active
4045 PSI
Prevents activation of NF-κB. Also inhibits the proteasome
0727 Pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate ammonium
Inhibits NF-κB, prevents increase in NOS mRNA
6259 RAGE antagonist peptide
Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) antagonist
1778 Ro 106-9920
Inhibitor of NF-κB activation
3318 SC 514
IKKβ inhibitor; attenuates NF-κB-induced gene expression
5309 SP 100030
NF-κB and AP-1 dual inhibitor
4935 Sulfasalazine
Inhibitor of NF-κB activation; also inhibits SXC
4426 Tanshinone IIA
Inhibits NF-κB and AP-1 DNA binding. Displays antioxidant properties
2559 TPCA-1
Potent, selective inhibitor of IKKβ
2816 Withaferin A
Inhibits NF-κB activation
6111 Zoledronic Acid
NF-κB signaling inhibitor; also potent farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase inhibitor

Activators

Cat No Product Name / Activity
3906 Betulinic acid
Activates NF-κB; antitumor and anti-HIV agent. Also TGR5 agonist
6124 (R)-2-Hydroxyglutaric acid disodium salt
NF-κB activator; also KDM4A inhibitor
5739 Prostratin
NF-κB activator; also PKC activator

NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) is a rapidly acting primary transcription factor found in all cell types. It is involved in cellular responses to stimuli such as cytokines and stress and plays a key role in regulating the immune response to infection. In unstimulated cells NF-κB dimers are sequestered inactively in the cytoplasm by a protein complex called inhibitor of kappa B (IκB). IκB inactivates NF-κB by masking the nuclear localization signals (NLS).

Activation of NF-κB occurs via degradation of IκB, a process that is initiated by its phosphorylation by IκB kinase (IKK). Phosphorylated IκB becomes dissociated from NF-κB, unmasking the NLS. Phosphorylation also results in IκB ubiquitination and targeting to the proteasome. NF-κB can now enter the nucleus and regulate gene expression. NF-κB turns on expression of IκB forming a negative feedback loop.

NF-κB Gene Data

Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
NF-κB1 (p105/p50) Human NFKB1 NM_003998 P19838
Mouse Nfkb1 NM_008689 P25799
Rat Nfkb1 L26267 Q63369
NF-κB2 (p100/p52) Human NFKB2 NM_002502 Q00653
Mouse Nfkb2 NM_019408 Q9WTK5
Rat Nfkb2 NM_001008349 Q5U2Z4
RelA (p65) Human RELA NM_021975 Q04206
Mouse Rela NM_009045 Q04207
Rat Rela NM_199267 NP_954888
RelB Human RELB NM_006509 Q01201
Mouse RelB NM_009046 NM_009046
c-Rel Human REL NM_002908 Q04864
Mouse Rel NM_009044 P15307
IκBα Human NFKBIA NM_020529 P25963
Mouse Nfkbia NM_010907 Q9Z1E3
Rat Nfkbia NM_001105720 Q63746
IκBβ Human NFKBIB NM_002503 Q15653
Mouse Nfkbib NM_010908 Q60778
Rat Nfkbib NM_030867 Q9JIA3
IκBδ Human NFKBID NM_032721 -
Mouse Nfkbid NM_172142 Q2TB02
IκBε Human NFKBIE NM_002503 Q15653
Mouse Nfkbie NM_008690 O54910
Rat Nfkbie NM_199111 Q6P780
IκBζ Human NFKBIZ NM_031419 Q9BYH8
Mouse Nfkbiz NM_030612 Q9EST8
Rat Nfkbiz NM_001107095 NP_001100565
Bcl-3 Human BCL3 NM_005178 P20749
Mouse Bcl3 NM_033601 Q9Z2F6
Rat Bcl3 NM_001109422 -