NF-κB and IκB

NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) is a rapidly acting primary transcription factor found in all cell types. It is involved in the cellular responses to stimuli such as cytokines and stress and plays a key role in regulating the immunological response to infections.

Pathways (1)
Gene Data

NF-κB and IκB Inhibitors

Cat. No. Product Name / Activity
4547 ACHP
Selective IKKα and IKKβ inhibitor; blocks NF-κB-DNA binding
4857 Amlexanox
Inhibitor of TBK1 and IKKε; antiallergic agent
1777 Arctigenin
Inhibitor of IκBα phosphorylation. Also inhibits MEK1
1743 Bay 11-7085
Irreversible inhibitor of TNF-α-induced IκBα phosphorylation
1744 Bay 11-7821
Indirect inhibitor of IκBα phosphorylation
4806 BMS 345541
Selective allosteric inhibitor of IKK; anti-inflammatory
5821 C-DIM 12
Inhibits NF-κB-dependent gene expression; Nurr1 activator
2743 Caffeic acid phenethyl ester
Specific inhibitor of NF-κB activation
2509 Cardamonin
Inhibitor of NF-κB activation; anti-inflammatory
3203 Celastrol
Inhibits TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation
6237 FPS ZM1
High affinity antagonist of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE)
5672 GSK 319347A
Potent and selective IKKε inhibitor
4590 Honokiol
Blocks NF-κB activation; also anti-inflammatory and antioxidant
2539 IKK 16
Selective inhibitor of IKK
2611 IMD 0354
Inhibitor of IKKβ
5699 IP7e
Blocks NF-κB pathway; also potent Nurr1 activator
2874 Luteolin
Blocks NF-κB activation
1748 MG 132
Inhibits NF-κB activation; proteasome and calpain inhibitor
4899 ML 120B dihydrochloride
Novel IKK2-selective inhibitor
7136 NIKi
Potent NIK inhibitor
4238 PF 184
Potent and selective IKKβ inhibitor
1554 Piceatannol
Inhibits TNF-induced NF-κB activation
6259 RAGE antagonist peptide
Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) antagonist
3318 SC 514
IKKβ inhibitor; attenuates NF-κB-induced gene expression
5309 SP 100030
NF-κB and AP-1 dual inhibitor
4935 Sulfasalazine
Inhibitor of NF-κB activation; also inhibits SXC and folate transporter 1
2559 TPCA-1
Potent, selective inhibitor of IKKβ
2816 Withaferin A
Inhibits NF-κB activation
6111 Zoledronic Acid
NF-κB signaling inhibitor; also potent farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase inhibitor

NF-κB and IκB Activators

Cat. No. Product Name / Activity
3906 Betulinic acid
Activates NF-κB; antitumor and anti-HIV agent. Also TGR5 agonist
6124 (R)-2-Hydroxyglutaric acid disodium salt
NF-κB activator; also KDM4A inhibitor


Cat. No. Product Name / Activity
7715 C25-140
TRAF6-Ubc13 interaction inhibitor; suppresses NF-κB signaling
1126 Dexamethasone
Reduces levels of activated NF-κB in immature dendritic cells; anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid
7866 IDR 1002
Innate defence regulator peptide

NF-κB (nuclear factor-kappa B) is a rapidly acting primary transcription factor found in all cell types. It is involved in cellular responses to stimuli such as cytokines and stress and plays a key role in regulating the immune response to infection. In unstimulated cells NF-κB dimers are sequestered inactively in the cytoplasm by a protein complex called inhibitor of kappa B (IκB). IκB inactivates NF-κB by masking the nuclear localization signals (NLS).

Activation of NF-κB occurs via degradation of IκB, a process that is initiated by its phosphorylation by IκB kinase (IKK). Phosphorylated IκB becomes dissociated from NF-κB, unmasking the NLS. Phosphorylation also results in IκB ubiquitination and targeting to the proteasome. NF-κB can now enter the nucleus and regulate gene expression. NF-κB turns on expression of IκB forming a negative feedback loop.

Pathways for NF-κB and IκB

NF-κB Signaling Pathway

NF-κB Signaling Pathway

NF-κB signaling plays an important role in inflammation, the innate and adaptive immune response and stress. Dysregulated signaling can occur in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

NF-κB Gene Data

Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
NF-κB1 (p105/p50) Human NFKB1 NM_003998 P19838
Mouse Nfkb1 NM_008689 P25799
Rat Nfkb1 L26267 Q63369
NF-κB2 (p100/p52) Human NFKB2 NM_002502 Q00653
Mouse Nfkb2 NM_019408 Q9WTK5
Rat Nfkb2 NM_001008349 Q5U2Z4
RelA (p65) Human RELA NM_021975 Q04206
Mouse Rela NM_009045 Q04207
Rat Rela NM_199267 NP_954888
RelB Human RELB NM_006509 Q01201
Mouse RelB NM_009046 NM_009046
c-Rel Human REL NM_002908 Q04864
Mouse Rel NM_009044 P15307
IκBα Human NFKBIA NM_020529 P25963
Mouse Nfkbia NM_010907 Q9Z1E3
Rat Nfkbia NM_001105720 Q63746
IκBβ Human NFKBIB NM_002503 Q15653
Mouse Nfkbib NM_010908 Q60778
Rat Nfkbib NM_030867 Q9JIA3
IκBδ Human NFKBID NM_032721 -
Mouse Nfkbid NM_172142 Q2TB02
IκBε Human NFKBIE NM_002503 Q15653
Mouse Nfkbie NM_008690 O54910
Rat Nfkbie NM_199111 Q6P780
IκBζ Human NFKBIZ NM_031419 Q9BYH8
Mouse Nfkbiz NM_030612 Q9EST8
Rat Nfkbiz NM_001107095 NP_001100565
Bcl-3 Human BCL3 NM_005178 P20749
Mouse Bcl3 NM_033601 Q9Z2F6
Rat Bcl3 NM_001109422 -