Proteasome

The proteasome complex is a broad spectrum protease present in all eukaryotes, which functions to carry out selective, efficient and progressive hydrolysis of intracellular target proteins. The proteasome plays a prominent role in the control of a diverse array of basic cellular processes.

Products
Background
Literature
Gene Data

Inhibitors

Cat No Product Name / Activity
2564 AM 114
20S proteasome inhibitor
2637 Gliotoxin
Inhibitor of 20S proteasome; immunosuppressant
2267 Lactacystin
Cell-permeable, potent and selective proteasome inhibitor
1748 MG 132
Proteasome and calpain inhibitor. Inhibits NF-κB activation
6033 (R)-MG 132
Potent 20S proteasome inhibitor
4045 PSI
Proteasome inhibitor. Also prevents activation of NF-κB

The proteasome complex is a broad spectrum protease present in all eukaryotes, which functions to carry out selective, efficient and progressive hydrolysis of intracellular target proteins. The proteasome plays a prominent role in the control of a diverse array of basic cellular processes by rapidly catalyzing numerous biological reactions.

The proteasome complex is composed of a 20S catalytic core and one or two terminal 19S regulatory units. The 20S catalytic domain is barrel-shaped and consists of seven structurally similar α- and β-subunits. In the inactive state, the external α-subunits act as a physical barrier to prevent peptide substrates accessing the active site on the β-subunits. The 19S regulatory units recognize proteins marked by polyubiquitin chains, remove the chain, entrap the protein moiety and open the 20S α-subunits allowing the β-subunits to degrade the protein. Assembly of the 20S domain is very complex and requires extrinsic (e.g. PAC1) and intrinsic (e.g. C-tail of β-subunits) chaperones. The assembly mechanism of the 19S domain is poorly understood, but Hsp90 is thought to play a role.

Regulation of the proteasome complex is mediated by proteasome interacting proteins (PIPs). There are two classes of PIPs; protein factors related to the ubiquitylation system such as the deubiquitinating enzyme, USP14, and auxillary factors that regulate proteasome functions via direct binding, for example Ecm29.

Literature for Proteasome

Cancer

Cancer Research Product Guide

A collection of over 750 products for cancer research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Cancer Metabolism
  • Epigenetics in Cancer
  • Receptor Signaling
  • Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Repair
  • Angiogenesis
  • Invasion and Metastasis
Neurodegeneration

Neurodegeneration Product Guide

A collection of over 275 products for neurodegeneration research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Huntington's disease

Proteasome Gene Data

Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
α1 Human PSMA1 NM_002786 P25786
Mouse Psma1 NM_011965 Q9R1P4
Rat Psma1 NM_017278 P18420
α2 Human PSMA2 NM_002787 P25787
Mouse Psma2 NM_008944 P49722
Rat Psma2 NM_017279 Q6P9V5
α3 Human PSMA3 NM_002788 P25788
Mouse Psma3 NM_011184 O70435
Rat Psma3 NM_017280 P18422
α4 Human PSMA4 NM_002789 P25789
Mouse Psma4 NM_011966 Q9R1P0
Rat Psma4 NM_017281 P21670
α5 Human PSMA5 NM_002790 P28066
Mouse Psma5 NM_011967 Q9Z2U1
Rat Psma5 NM_017282 P34064
α6 Human PSMA6 NM_002791 P60900
Mouse Psma6 NM_011968 Q9QUM9
Rat Psma6 NM_017283 P60901
α7 Human PSMA7 NM_002792 O14818
Mouse Psma7 NM_011969 Q9Z2U0
Rat Psma7 NM_001008217 P48004
α8 Human PSMA8 NM_144662 Q8TAA3
Mouse Psma8 AK010717 Q9CWH6
β1 Human PSMB1 NM_002793 P20618
Mouse Psmb1 NM_011185 O09061
Rat Psmb1 NM_053590 P18421
β2 Human PSMB2 NM_002794 P49721
Mouse Psmb2 NM_011970 Q9R1P3
Rat Psmb2 NM_017284 P40307
β3 Human PSMB3 NM_002795 P49720
Mouse Psmb3 NM_011971 Q9R1P1
Rat Psmb3 NM_017285 P40112
β4 Human PSMB4 NM_002796 P28070
Mouse Psmb4 NM_008945 P99026
Rat Psmb4 NM_031629 P34067
β5 Human PSMB5 NM_002797 P28074
Mouse Psmb5 NM_011186 O55234
Rat Psmb5 NM_001105727 P28075
β6 Human PSMB6 NM_002798 P28072
Mouse Psmb6 NM_008946 Q60692
Rat Psmb6 NM_057099 P28073
β7 Human PSMB7 NM_002799 Q99436
Mouse Psmb7 NM_011187 P70195
Rat Psmb7 NM_053532 Q9JHW0
β8 Human PSMB8 NM_004159 P28062
Mouse Psmb8 NM_010724 P28063
Rat Psmb8 NM_080767 P28064
β9 Human PSMB9 NM_148954 P28065
Mouse Psmb9 NM_013585 P28076
Rat Psmb9 NM_012708 P28077
β10 Human PSMB10 NM_002801 P40306
Mouse Psmb10 NM_013640 O35955
Rat Psmb10 NM_001025637 Q4KM35
β11 Human PSMB11 NM_001099780 A5LHX3
Mouse Psmb11 NM_175204 Q8BG41
Rat Psmb11 NM_001106032 XP_224175
ATPase 1 Human PSMC1 NM_002802 P62191
Mouse Psmc1 NM_008947 P62192
Rat Psmc1 NM_057123 P62193
ATPase 2 Human PSMC2 NM_002803 P35998
Mouse Psmc2 NM_011188 P46471
Rat Psmc2 NM_033236 Q63347
ATPase 3 Human PSMC3 NM_002804 P17980
Mouse Psmc3 NM_008948 O88685
Rat Psmc3 NM_031595 Q63569
ATPase 4 Human PSMC4 NM_006503 P43686
Mouse Psmc4 NM_011874 P54775
Rat Psmc4 NM_057122 Q63570
ATPase 5 Human PSMC5 NM_002805 P62195
Mouse Psmc5 NM_008950 P62196
Rat Psmc5 NM_031149 O35050
ATPase 6 Human PSMC6 NM_002806 P62333
Mouse Psmc6 NM_025959 P62334
Rat Psmc6 NM_001100509 Q32PW9
Non-ATPase 1 Human PSMD1 NM_002807 Q99460
Mouse Psmd1 NM_027357 Q3TXS7
Rat Psmd1 NM_031978 O88761
Non-ATPase 2 Human PSMD2 NM_002808 Q13200
Mouse Psmd2 NM_134101 Q8VDM4
Rat Psmd2 NM_001031639 Q4FZT9
Non-ATPase 3 Human PSMD3 NM_002809 O43242
Mouse Psmd3 NM_009439 P14685
Rat Psmd3 NM_001008281 Q5U2S7
Non-ATPase 4 Human PSMD4 NM_002810 P55036
Mouse Psmd4 NM_008951 O35226
Rat Psmd4 NM_031331 O88321
Non-ATPase 5 Human PSMD5 NM_005047 Q16401
Mouse Psmd5 NM_080554 Q8BJY1
Rat Psmd5 NM_001106569 XP_216041
Non-ATPase 6 Human PSMD6 NM_014814 Q15008
Mouse Psmd6 NM_025550 Q99JI4
Rat Psmd6 NM_198730 Q6PCT9
Non-ATPase 7 Human PSMD7 NM_002811 P51665
Mouse Psmd7 NM_010817 P26516
Rat Psmd7 NM_001107426 XP_226439
Non-ATPase 8 Human PSMD8 NM_002812 P48556
Mouse Psmd8 NM_026545 Q9CX56
Rat Psmd8 NM_001100831 Q3B8P5
Non-ATPase 9 Human PSMD9 NM_002813 O00233
Mouse Psmd9 NM_026000 Q9CR00
Rat Psmd9 NM_130430 Q9WTV5
Non-ATPase 10 Human PSMD10 NM_170750 O75832
Mouse Psmd10 NM_016883 Q9Z2X2
Rat Psmd10 NM_053925 Q9Z2X3
Non-ATPase 11 Human PSMD11 NM_002815 O00231
Mouse Psmd11 NM_178616 Q8BG32
Rat Psmd11 NM_001107027 XP_220754
Non-ATPase 12 Human PSMD12 NM_002816 O00232
Mouse Psmd12 NM_025894 Q9D8W5
Rat Psmd12 NM_001005875 Q5XIC6
Non-ATPase 13 Human PSMD13 NM_002817 Q9UNM6
Mouse Psmd13 NM_011875 Q9WVJ2
Rat Psmd13 NM_001108925 XP_344977
Non-ATPase 14 Human PSMD14 NM_005805 O00487
Mouse Psmd14 NM_021526 O35593
Rat Psmd14 NM_001025689 Q4V8E2