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CaV1.x channels (L-type) are high-voltage activated Ca2+ channels that are sensitive to blockade by dihydropyridines. This family has four members, each composed of an α1, α2/δ, β and γ subunit. Mutations in the α1-subunit of CaV1.x channels have been linked to various cardiac arrhythmias and neuropsychiatric diseases.
|Cat No||Product Name / Activity|
|1544||(±)-Bay K 8644|
|1546||(S)-(-)-Bay K 8644|
|CaV1.x activator; (S)-(-)-enantiomer of (±)-Bay K 8644|
|Potent CaV1.x activator|
|CaV1.x and CaV2.2 activator; cognitive enhancer|
|Cat No||Product Name / Activity|
|1545||(R)-(+)-Bay K 8644|
|CaV1.x blocker; (R)-(+)-enantiomer of (±)-Bay K 8644|
|Dual CaV1.x and CaV2.x blocker|
|CaV1.x blocker; also CaSR allosteric agonist and CYP2D2 inhibitor|
|3733||Efonidipine hydrochloride monoethanolate|
|CaV1.x and CaV3.x blocker|
|CaV1.x blocker; also K-Ras inhibitor|
|CaV1.x and CaV2.x blocker; also peripherally acting μ agonist|
|CaV1.x blocker; also α1A antagonist; less active enantiomer of (S)-(+)-Niguldipine|
|CaV1.x blocker; also α1A antagonist|
|CaV1.x blocker; also Syk kinase inhibitor|
|1806||SR 33805 oxalate|
|CaV1.x blocker; binds allosterically to distinct site|
CaV1.x channels (L-type) are high-voltage activated Ca2+ channels that are sensitive to blockade by dihydropyridines. This family has four members, each composed of an α1, α2/δ, β and γ subunit.
CaV1.1 channels are specific to skeletal muscle where they interact with ryanodine receptors on the sarcoplasmic reticulum and trigger Ca2+ influx, Ca2+-activated Ca2+ release and muscle contraction. Mutations in CaV1.1 α1-subunit have been linked to hypokalemic periodic paralysis.
CaV1.2 and 1.3 channels are found in most excitable cells. In the brain, they are located postsynaptically, where they modulate neuronal firing and Ca2+-coupled gene transcription. By supporting neuronal plasticity, these channels are critical to processes such as learning and memory, addiction and neural development. As well as being found in the brain, CaV1.2 and 1.3 channels are found in the heart. CaV1.2 are the predominant subtype in cardiomyocytes, where they trigger contraction, however they are also found in smaller numbers in sinoatrial and atrioventricular node cells. CaV1.3 are the predominant subtype in these cells, and CaV1.2 and 1.3 channels play roles at different stages of the cardiac action potential. Additionally, CaV1.2 and 1.3 channels are found in endocrine cells; CaV1.2 control the fast phase of insulin secretion in mouse pancreatic β-cells, while CaV1.3 are required for β-cell proliferation and development. Mutations in the CaV1.2 α1-subunit have been linked to various cardiac arrhythmias, as well as neuropsychiatric diseases including autism. Similarly, mutations in CaV1.3 α1-subunit have been linked to autism, and also Parkinson's disease.
CaV1.4 channels are mainly restricted to the retina, where they are essential for normal visual function; congenital stationary night blindness has been linked to mutations in CaV1.4 channels.
Tocris offers the following scientific literature for CaV1.x Channels (L-type) to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
|Gene||Species||Gene Symbol||Gene Accession No.||Protein Accession No.|