Retinoic Acid Receptors

Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are nuclear hormone receptors of the NR1B class, which function as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). There are three distinct RAR subtypes: RARα, present in most tissue types; and RARβ and RARγ, with more selective expression.

Products
Background
Literature
Gene Data

Agonists

Cat No Product Name / Activity
4046 AC 261066
RARβ2 agonist
2436 AC 55649
Selective RARβ2 agonist
2852 Adapalene
RARβ and RARγ agonist
0760 AM 580
Retinoic acid analog; RARα agonist
3507 AM 80
RARα agonist; anticancer
3505 BMS 753
RARα-selective agonist
3410 BMS 961
Selective RARγ agonist
2554 CD 1530
Potent and selective RARγ agonist
3824 CD 2314
Selective RARβ agonist
1549 CD 437
RARγ-selective agonist
2020 Ch 55
Potent RAR agonist
5513 Isotretinoin
Endogenous agonist for retinoic acid receptors; inducer of neuronal differentiation
0695 Retinoic acid
Endogenous retinoic acid receptor agonist
3997 Tazarotene
Receptor-selective retinoid; binds RAR-β and -γ
0761 TTNPB
Retinoic acid analog; RAR agonist

Antagonists

Cat No Product Name / Activity
5758 AGN 193109
High affinity pan-RAR antagonist
3660 BMS 195614
Selective RARα antagonist
3509 BMS 493
Pan-RAR inverse agonist
3800 CD 2665
Selective RARβ/γ antagonist
3823 ER 50891
Selective RARα antagonist
2021 LE 135
Selective RARβ antagonist
3822 MM 11253
RARγ-selective antagonist

Other

Cat No Product Name / Activity
3409 BMS 453
Synthetic retinoid and RARβ agonist; also RARα and RARγ antagonist
5849 EC 19
Synthetic retinoid; induces differentiation of stem cells
4011 EC 23
Synthetic retinoid; induces differentiation of stem cells
1396 Fenretinide
Synthetic retinoid; antiproliferative and antioxidant
2705 Liarozole dihydrochloride
Blocks retinoic acid metabolism

Related Targets

    Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are nuclear hormone receptors of the NR1B class, which function as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). There are three distinct RAR subtypes: RARα, RARβ and RARγ. RARα is present in most tissue types, whereas RARβ and RARγ expression is more selective.

    RXR-RAR heterodimers act as ligand-dependent transcriptional regulators by binding to the specific retinoic acid response element (RARE) found in the promoter regions of target genes. In the absence of an RAR agonist, RXR-RAR recruits co-repressor proteins such as NCoR and associated factors such as histone deacetylase to maintain a condensed chromatin structure. RAR agonist binding stimulates co-repressor release and co-activator complexes, such as histone acetyltransferase, are recruited to activate transcription.

    RARs transduce retinoid signals in vivo, which mediates proper embryogenesis, differentiation and growth arrest. Specifically, RXRα-RARγ heterodimers are necessary for growth arrest and visceral and primitive endodermal differentiation, whereas RXRα-RARα is required for cAMP-dependent parietal endodermal differentiation. In vitro it has been difficult to elucidate the roles of individual subtypes as functional RAR knockouts generate artificial redundancies that are thought not to exist under normal conditions.

    External sources of pharmacological information for Retinoic Acid Receptors :

      Literature for Retinoic Acid Receptors

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      Nuclear Receptors Product Listing

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      Retinoic Acid Receptor Gene Data

      Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
      RARα Human RARA NM_000964 P10276
      Mouse Rara NM_009024 P11416
      Rat Rara NM_031528 Q9QWT3
      RARβ Human RARB NM_000965 P10826
      Mouse Rarb NM_011243 P22605
      Rat Rarb XM_223843 O54746
      RARγ Human RARG NM_000966 P13631
      Mouse Rarg NM_011244 P18911
      Rat Rarg NM_001135250 XP_001066954