Endogenous agonist for retinoic acid receptors (IC50 = 14 nM for RARα, RARβ and RARγ receptors). Also promotes differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into adipocytes, neurons and glia in vitro. Proposed ligand of RORβ (Kd = 280 nM). Activates autophagy.
|Storage||Store at -20°C|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.
|Solubility||Soluble to 25 mM in DMSO and to 10 mM in ethanol|
Preparing Stock Solutions
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 300.44. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to solvent of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||3.33 mL||16.64 mL||33.28 mL|
|5 mM||0.67 mL||3.33 mL||6.66 mL|
|10 mM||0.33 mL||1.66 mL||3.33 mL|
|50 mM||0.07 mL||0.33 mL||0.67 mL|
The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.
References are publications that support the products' biological activity.
Apfel et al (1992) A retinoic acid receptor alpha antagonist selectively counteracts retinoic acid effects. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A. 89 7129 PMID: 1323127
Dani et al (1997) Differentiation of embryonic stem cells into adipocytes in vitro. J. Cell Sci. 110 1279 PMID: 9202388
Sanquer and Gilchrest (1994) Characterisation of human cellular retinoic acid binding proteins-1 and -2: ligand binding affinities and distribution in skin. Arch.Biochem.Biophys. 311 86 PMID: 8185324
Stehlin-Gaon et al (2003) All-trans retinoic acid is a ligand for the orphan nuclear receptor RORβ. Nat.Struct.Biol. 10 820 PMID: 12958591
Galluzzi et al (2017) Pharmacological modulation of autophagy: therapeutic potential and persisting obstacles. Nat.Rev.Drug.Discov. PMID: 28529316
If you know of a relevant reference for Retinoic acid, please let us know.
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Keywords: Endogenous retinoic acid receptor agonists modulates PPARδ PPARdelta Positive modulators RAR Retinoic Acid Receptors RXR Retinoid X Peroxisome Proliferator-activating PPAR stem cells ATRA all trans retinoic acid trans-retinoic organoids Tretinoin ATRA Retinoic Acid Receptors
3 Citations for Retinoic acid
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Retinoic acid include:
Lewis et al (2015) Inhibition of PAD4 activity is sufficient to disrupt mouse and human NET formation. J Med Food 11 189 PMID: 25622091
Davies et al (2012) Evolution and functional characterisation of melanopsins in a deep-sea chimaera (elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii). PLoS One 7 e51276 PMID: 23251480
Han et al (2012) Berberine promotes axonal regeneration in injured nerves of the peripheral nervous system. Physiol Behav 15 413 PMID: 22316297
Do you know of a great paper that uses Retinoic acid from Tocris? If so please let us know.