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Biological Activity for Retinoic acid
Retinoic acid is an endogenous agonist for retinoic acid receptors (IC50 = 14 nM for RARα, RARβ and RARγ receptors). Also promotes differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into adipocytes, neurons and glia in vitro. Proposed ligand of RORβ (Kd = 280 nM). Activates autophagy.
Applications in hiPSCs for Retinoic acid
Image shows IBJ6 human fibroblast induced pluripotent stem cells which have been differentiated into motor neurons. This was performed using a combination of LDN 193189 (100 nM) (Cat. No. 6053) and SB 431542 (Cat. No. 1614) followed by Retinoic acid and Purmorphamine (Cat. No. 4551) culture on Laminin for 18 days. Commitment to the motor neuron fate was assessed using the motor neuron marker anti-Human Islet-1 (red, R&D Systems®, Cat. No. AF1837) and the general neuronal marker, beta III tubulin (green, R&D Systems®, Cat. No. MAB1195). For visualization, the neurons were stained using Northernlights™ 557-conjugated Donkey anti-Goat Secondary Antibody (R&D Systems®, Cat. No. NL001) and Northernlights™ 493-conjugated Donkey anti-Mouse Secondary Antibody (R&D Systems®, Cat. No. NL009) and counterstained with DAPI (blue, Cat. No. 5748).
Technical Data for Retinoic acid
|Storage||Store at -20°C|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Solubility Data for Retinoic acid
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions for Retinoic acid
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 300.44. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|0.25 mM||13.31 mL||66.57 mL||133.14 mL|
|1.25 mM||2.66 mL||13.31 mL||26.63 mL|
|2.5 mM||1.33 mL||6.66 mL||13.31 mL|
|12.5 mM||0.27 mL||1.33 mL||2.66 mL|
References for Retinoic acid
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Apfel et al (1992) A retinoic acid receptor alpha antagonist selectively counteracts retinoic acid effects. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.U.S.A. 89 7129 PMID: 1323127
Dani et al (1997) Differentiation of embryonic stem cells into adipocytes in vitro. J. Cell Sci. 110 1279 PMID: 9202388
Sanquer and Gilchrest (1994) Characterisation of human cellular retinoic acid binding proteins-1 and -2: ligand binding affinities and distribution in skin. Arch.Biochem.Biophys. 311 86 PMID: 8185324
Merck Index 12 8333
Stehlin-Gaon et al (2003) All-trans retinoic acid is a ligand for the orphan nuclear receptor RORβ. Nat.Struct.Biol. 10 820 PMID: 12958591
Galluzzi et al (2017) Pharmacological modulation of autophagy: therapeutic potential and persisting obstacles. Nat.Rev.Drug.Discov. PMID: 28529316
Lancaster et al (2015) Generation of Cerebral Organoids from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Nat. Protoc. 9 2329 PMID: 25188634
Kadoshima et al (2013) Self-organization of axial polarity, inside-out layer pattern, and species-specific progenitor dynamics in human ES cell-derived neocortex. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA. 110 20284 PMID: 24277810
If you know of a relevant reference for Retinoic acid, please let us know.
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6 Citations for Retinoic acid
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Retinoic acid include:
Jaako et al (2016) Prolyl endopeptidase is involved in the degradation of neural cell adhesion molecules in vitro. J Cell Sci 129 3792 PMID: 27566163
Davies et al (2012) Evolution and functional characterisation of melanopsins in a deep-sea chimaera (elephant shark, Callorhinchus milii). PLoS One 7 e51276 PMID: 23251480
Lewis et al (2015) Inhibition of PAD4 activity is sufficient to disrupt mouse and human NET formation. J Med Food 11 189 PMID: 25622091
Bohnenpoll (2017) Retinoic acid signaling maintains epithelial and mesenchymal progenitors in the developing mouse ureter. Sci Rep 7 14803 PMID: 29093497
Li et al (2018) Fast Generation of Functional Subtype Astrocytes from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Stem Cell Reports 11 998 PMID: 30269954
Han et al (2012) Berberine promotes axonal regeneration in injured nerves of the peripheral nervous system. Physiol Behav 15 413 PMID: 22316297
Do you know of a great paper that uses Retinoic acid from Tocris? Please let us know.
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Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!
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