Histone Deacetylases

There are 18 Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes that are classified into two groups, the histone deacetylase family and the sirtuin family. The histone deacetylase family is divided into classes I, II and IV.

Literature (4)
Enzyme Data

There are 18 Histone deacetylases (HDAC) enzymes that are classified in to two families, the histone deacetylase family and the sirtuin family. The histone deacetylase family is further divided in to class I (HDACs 1/2/3 and 8), class II (HDACs 4/5/6/7/9/10) and class IV (HDAC 11). The sirtuin family are all classified as class III HDACs. HDACs catalyze acetyl group removal from lysine residues in histones and non-histone proteins, causing transcriptional repression. In general, they do not act autonomously but as components of large multiprotein complexes, such as pRb-E2F and mSin3A, that mediate important transcription regulatory pathways.

Classes I, II and IV, are closely related Zn2+-dependent enzymes, which are ubiquitously expressed and they can exist in the nucleus or cytosol. Their subcellular localization is affected by protein-protein interactions (for example HDAC-14.3.3 complexes are retained in the cytosol) and by the class to which they belong (class 1 HDACs are predominantly nuclear whilst class 2 HDACs shuttle between the nucleus and cytosol). HDACs have a role in cell growth arrest, differentiation and death and this has led to substantial interest in HDAC inhibitors as possible antineoplastic agents.

Histone acetylation - a key epigenetic process - is upregulated during memory formation but downregulated in numerous neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Huntington's disease. As a result, HDAC inhibitors are also of great interest in neuroscience research.

Literature for Histone Deacetylases

Tocris offers the following scientific literature for Histone Deacetylases to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!

*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.

Huntington's Disease Research Product Guide

Huntington's Disease Research Product Guide

This product guide provides a background to Huntington's disease research and lists around 100 products for the study of:

  • Somatic Instability
  • Proteolysis and Inclusion Bodies
  • Transcriptional Dysregulation
  • Mitochondrial Dysfunction
  • Nuclear-Cytoplasmic Transport Interference
  • Excitotoxicity
  • Stem Cells
Epigenetics Scientific Review

Epigenetics Scientific Review

Written by Susanne Müller-Knapp and Peter J. Brown, this review gives an overview of the development of chemical probes for epigenetic targets, as well as the impact of these tool compounds being made available to the scientific community. In addition, their biological effects are also discussed. Epigenetic compounds available from Tocris are listed.

Depression Poster

Depression Poster

Major depressive disorder is characterized by depressed mood and a loss of interest and/or pleasure. Updated in 2015 this poster highlights presynaptic and postsynaptic targets for the potential treatment of major depressive disorder, as well as outlining the pharmacology of currently approved antidepressant drugs.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Poster

Rheumatoid Arthritis Poster

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic destructive inflammatory autoimmune disease that results from a breakdown in immune tolerance, for reasons that are as yet unknown. This poster summarizes the pathology of RA and the inflammatory processes involved, as well as describing some of the epigenetic modifications associated with the disease and the potential for targeting these changes in the discovery of new treatments.

Histone Deacetylase Gene Data

Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
Class 1
HDAC1 Human HDAC1 NM_004964 Q13547
Mouse Hdac1 NM_008228 O09106
Rat Hdac1 NM_001025409 Q4QQW4
HDAC2 Human HDAC2 NM_001527 Q92769
Mouse Hdac2 NM_008229 P70288
Rat Hdac2 NM_053447 Q99PA1
HDAC3 Human HDAC3 NM_003883 O15379
Mouse Hdac3 NM_010411 O88895
Rat Hdac3 NM_053448 Q6P6W3
HDAC8 Human HDAC8 NM_018486 Q9BY41
Mouse Hdac8 NM_027382 Q8VH37
Rat Hdac8 NM_001126373 XP_343805
Class 2
HDAC4 Human HDAC4 NM_006037 P56524
Mouse Hdac4 NM_207225 Q6NZM9
Rat Hdac4 XM_343629 Q99P99
HDAC5 Human HDAC5 NM_001015053 Q9UQL6
Mouse Hdac5 NM_001077696 Q9Z2V6
Rat Hdac5 XM_001081495 Q5RJZ2
HDAC6 Human HDAC6 NM_006044 Q9UBN7
Mouse Hdac6 NM_010413 Q9Z2V5
Rat Hdac6 XM_228753 Q99P97
HDAC7 Human HDAC7 NM_016596 Q9UFU7
Mouse Hdac7 NM_019572 Q8C2B3
Rat Hdac7a XM_345868 Q99P96
HDAC9 Human HDAC9 NM_058177 Q9UKV0
Mouse Hdac9 NM_024124 Q99N13
HDAC10 Human HDAC10 NM_032019 Q969S8
Mouse Hdac10 NM_199198 Q6P3E7
Rat Hdac10 NM_001035000 Q569C4
Class 4
HDAC11 Human HDAC11 NM_024827 Q96DB2
Mouse Hdac11 NM_144919 Q91WA3
Rat Hdac11 NM_001106610 XP_238362