Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) catalyzes the post-translational modification of proteins by the addition of multiple ADP-ribose moieties. PARP transfers ADP-ribose from nicotinamide dinucleotide (NAD) to Glu/Asp residues on the substrate protein.

Products
Background
Literature
Gene Data

Inhibitors

Cat No Product Name / Activity
0788 3-Aminobenzamide
PARP inhibitor
6060 AZD 2461
Potent PARP inhibitor; orally bioavailable
5817 BSI 201
PARP-1 inhibitor
3734 BYK 204165
Selective PARP-1 inhibitor
3735 BYK 49187
PARP-1 and PARP-2 inhibitor
2496 DR 2313
PARP-1 and PARP-2 inhibitor
4140 EB 47
Potent PARP-1 inhibitor
2192 4-HQN
PARP inhibitor
5054 ME 0328
Selective PARP-3 inhibitor
4106 Nicotinamide
PARP-1 inhibitor
1401 NU 1025
Potent PARP inhibitor
3255 PJ 34 hydrochloride
Potent PARP inhibitor
6230 Rucaparib camsylate
PARP inhibitor
3736 UPF 1069
PARP-2 inhibitor

Related Targets

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) catalyzes the post-translational modification of proteins by the addition of multiple ADP-ribose moieties. PARP transfers ADP-ribose from nicotinamide dinucleotide (NAD) to Glu/Asp residues on the substrate protein, and also polymerizes ADP-ribose to form long/branched chain polymers. Tankyrase proteins also display PARP activity.

PARP-1, one of 5 confirmed PARPs, is the most abundant and highly expressed PARP enzyme. PARP-1 detects and relocates to single strand breaks or nicks in chromosomal DNA. PARP-1 is thought to play an important role in the initiation of the DNA repair pathway, although high levels of activation are also associated with increased apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress. In addition, PARP-1 may also operate downstream of the Raf-MEK-ERK pathway through direct interaction with ERK2 in the nucleus. PARP inhibitors are being developed for use in a number of pathologies including cancer, diabetes, stroke and cardiovascular disease.

Tankyrases 1 and 2 (TNKS1/PARP5A and TNKS2/PARP5B/PARP5C) are proteins with poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity. Human tankyrases post-translationally modify multiple proteins involved in processes including maintenance of telomere length, sister telomere association, insulin responsiveness, spindle assembly and trafficking of GLUT4-containing vesicles. Recently tankyrases have been shown to be involved in the Wnt signaling pathway. Tankyrases bind directly to axin, a member of the 'destruction complex' involved in β-catenin degradation. Inhibition of tankyrase stabilizes axin, increases the activity of the destruction complex and promotes degradation of β-catenin. Tankyrases are therefore an attractive target for cancer therapy.

Poly-ADP-ribosylation of histone proteins is also emerging as an important epigenetic regulatory mechanism.

Literature for Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerase

Cancer

Cancer Research Product Guide

A collection of over 750 products for cancer research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Cancer Metabolism
  • Epigenetics in Cancer
  • Receptor Signaling
  • Cell Cycle and DNA Damage Repair
  • Angiogenesis
  • Invasion and Metastasis
Neurodegeneration

Neurodegeneration Product Guide

A collection of over 275 products for neurodegeneration research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Parkinson's disease
  • Huntington's disease
Cell Cycle & DNA Damage Repair

Cell Cycle & DNA Damage Repair Poster

In normal cells, each stage of the cell cycle is tightly regulated, however in cancer cells many genes and proteins that are involved in the regulation of the cell cycle are mutated or over expressed. Adapted from the 2015 Cancer Product Guide, Edition 3, this poster summarizes the stages of the cell cycle and DNA repair. It also highlights strategies for enhancing replicative stress in cancer cells to force mitotic catastrophe and cell death.

Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase Gene Data

Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
PARP1 Human PARP1 NM_001618 P09874
Mouse Parp1 NM_007415 P11103
Rat Parp1 NM_013063 P27008
PARP2 Human PARP2 NM_005484 Q9UGN5
Mouse Parp2 NM_009632 O88554
Rat Parp2 NM_001106030 NP_001099500
PARP3 Human PARP3 NM_001003935 Q9Y6F1
Mouse Parp3 NM_145619 NP_663594
Rat Parp3 NM_001008328 Q5U2U3
PARP4 Human PARP4 NM_006437 Q9UKK3
Mouse Parp4 AK164513 Q6A0B1
PARP5A (TNKS1) Human TNKS NM_003747 O95271
Mouse Tnks NM_175091 NP_780300
PARP5B/5C (TNKS2) Human TNKS2 NM_025235 Q9H2K2
Mouse Tnks2 NM_001163635 NP_001157107
PARP6 Human PARP6 NM_020214 Q2NL67
Mouse Parp6 NM_029922 Q6P6P7
PARP8 Human PARP8 NM_024615 Q8N3A8
Mouse Parp8 NM_001081009 Q3UD82
PARP9 Human PARP9 NM_031458 Q8IXQ6
Mouse Parp9 NM_030253 Q8CAS9
PARP10 Human PARP10 NM_032789 Q53GL7
Mouse Parp10 AK035309 Q3TLV7
PARP11 Human PARP11 NM_020367 Q9NR21
Mouse Parp11 NM_181402 Q8CFF0
PARP12 Human PARP12 NM_022750 Q9H0J9
Mouse PARP12 NM_172893 Q8BZ20s
PARP14 Human PARP14 NM_017554 Q460N5
Mouse Parp14 NM_001039530 Q2EMV9
PARP15 Human PARP15 NM_152615 Q460N3
PARP16 Human PARP16 NM_017851 Q8N5Y8
Mouse Parp16 NM_177460 NM_177460
Rat Parp16 NM_173331 Q5U2Q4