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MAPKs (mitogen-activated protein kinases) are serine-threonine kinases that regulate a wide variety of cellular functions.
Six groups of MAPK have so far been identified:
ERK 1 and ERK 2 transduce signals from growth factors and are key in regulating differentiation and proliferation in many cell types. Upon activation by MEK, ERK1 and 2 translocate to the nucleus where they phosphorylate transcription factors such as Elk1 and downstream kinases such as p90 RSK. JNK 1,2 and 3 (sometimes known as SAPKs or stress-activated kinases) and the p38 MAPKs (α-, β-, δ and γ- isoforms) are activated by UV irradiation, inflammatory cytokines and hyperosmolarity. The p38 MAPKs are also activated by lipopolysaccharide. Dysregulation of MAPK kinase pathways has been associated with various diseases including cancer (ERK), neurodegeneration (JNK) and inflammation (p38).
MAP kinase signaling is integral to the regulation of numerous cellular processes such as proliferation and differentiation, and as a result is an important focus of cancer and immunology research. Updated for 2016, this review discusses the regulation of the MAPK pathway and properties of MAPK cascades. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.
Recognition memory enables us to make judgements about whether or not we have encountered a particular stimulus before. This poster outlines the cellular mechanisms underlying recognition memory and its links to long-term depression, as well as the use of pharmacological intervention to assess the role of neurotransmitters in recognition memory.
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects 1% of the worldwide population. This poster describes the neurobiology of Schizophrenia, as well as highlighting the genetic and environmental factors that play a fundamental role in the etiology of the disease. The current and emerging drug targets are also discussed.
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