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Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), along with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), catalyze nitric oxide and L-citrulline generation from L-arginine and molecular oxygen. eNOS is activated at calcium concentrations over 100 nM.
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), along with inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), catalyze the generation of nitric oxide and L-citrulline from L-arginine and molecular oxygen. It is activated at concentrations of calcium greater than 100 nM and requires tetrahydrobiopterin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, flavin mononucleotide and NADPH for catalytic activity.
eNOS is tightly regulated by co- and post-translational lipid modifications, phosphorylation by Akt/PKB, PKA and AMPK and protein-protein interactions. Negative protein-protein interactions are mediated by Hsp90 and Cav-1 in the Golgi and by NOSIP and NOSTRIN at the plasma membrane, whilst dynamin, porin and soluble guanylyl cyclase are positive regulators of eNOS activity.
eNOS is a critical mediator of cardiovascular homeostasis through regulation of the diameter of blood vessels and maintenance of an antiproliferative and antiapoptotic environment in the vasculature. The human gene encoding eNOS is localized to chromosome 7q36.