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Nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that modulate cell membrane potentials. Each receptor is composed of pentameric combinations of subunits (α1-10, β1-4, δ, ε and γ). Nicotinic receptors are generally divided into three functional classes: muscle subunits (α1, β1, δ, ε, γ), standard neuronal subunits (α1-6 and β2-4) that form in pairwise αβ combinations, and subunits (α7-9) that can form homomeric nAChRs. Neuronal nicotinic receptors are found in the central nervous system and in autonomic ganglia where they regulate processes such as transmitter release, cell excitability and neuronal integration. Nicotinic receptors located at the neuromuscular junctions of somatic muscles are responsible for muscular contraction.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disease and the most common cause of dementia, affecting approximately 47 million people worldwide. Updated in 2015, this poster summarizes the structural and functional changes observed in the progression of this neurodegenerative disease, as well as classic AD drug targets.
Recognition memory enables us to make judgements about whether or not we have encountered a particular stimulus before. This poster outlines the cellular mechanisms underlying recognition memory and its links to long-term depression, as well as the use of pharmacological intervention to assess the role of neurotransmitters in recognition memory.
Peripheral sensitization is the reduction in the threshold of excitability of sensory neurons that results in an augmented response to a given external stimulus. This poster outlines the excitatory and inhibitory signaling pathways involved in modulation of peripheral sensitization. The role of ion channels, GPCRs, neurotrophins, and cytokines in sensory neurons are also described.
Parkinson's disease (PD) causes chronic disability and is the second most common neurodegenerative condition. This poster outlines the neurobiology of the disease, as well as highlighting current therapeutic treatments for symptomatic PD, and emerging therapeutic strategies to delay PD onset and progression.
Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects 1% of the worldwide population. This poster describes the neurobiology of Schizophrenia, as well as highlighting the genetic and environmental factors that play a fundamental role in the etiology of the disease. The current and emerging drug targets are also discussed.
|Gene||Species||Gene Symbol||Gene Accession No.||Protein Accession No.|
|nACh Receptor Subtype||α2β4||α7||α3β4|
|Localisation||CNS - Cortex, thalamus, hippocampus,striatum||Autonomic ganglia, hippocampus, limbic system, cortex, chick retina||Autonomic ganglia, adrenal gland, hippocampus|
|Tissue Function||Synaptic transmission, anti-nociception, anxiolytic, memory||Synaptic transmission, auditory gating, memory||Synaptic transmission|
|Key Compounds||Ki (nM)|
(±-)Anatoxin A (0789)
RJR 2403 (1053)
UB 165 (1348)