Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE; also known as peptidyl dipeptidase A or carboxycathepsin) is a central component of the Renin-Angiotensin System, where the enzyme cleaves angiotensin I to release the vasoconstrictor peptide, angiotensin II. The ACE2 homolog inactivates angiotensin II by converting it to angiotensin 1-7. ACE2 is also suggested to be the host cell receptor for coronaviruses.

Products
Background
Literature (1)
Gene Data

Inhibitors

Cat. No. Product Name / Activity
2578 Benazepril hydrochloride
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
4455 Captopril
ACE inhibitor; also inhibits LTA4 hydrolase
4302 Perindopril erbumine
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
5250 Ramipril
Non-peptide, competitive angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor
2931 Spinorphin
Enkephalin-degrading and ACE inhibitor

Substrates

Cat. No. Product Name / Activity
1563 Angiotensin I (human, mouse, rat)
Endogenous peptide substrate of ACE and ACE2
3791 Hemopressin (human, mouse)
Bioactive substrate for endopeptidase 24.15, neurolysin and ACE
1764 Hemopressin (rat)
Bioactive substrate for endopeptidase 24.15, neurolysin and ACE

Ligands

Cat. No. Product Name / Activity
6006 Acein
High affinity angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) ligand

Other

Cat. No. Product Name / Activity
5491 Aliskiren hemifumarate
Potent renin inhibitor; antihypertensive
7233 SBP1
ACE2 derived peptide; binds SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor binding domain

ACE (E.C 3.4.15.1) belongs to the protease family of enzymes and is a membrane-bound zinc metalloenzyme. The zinc ion within ACE directly participates in its protease activity and ACE can be inhibited by metal chelating agents. The ACE gene encodes two isoforms; a long, somatic isoform found in many tissues including vascular endothelial cells and kidney epithelial cells, and a short, germinal isoform expressed only in the testes and sperm.

Within the Renin Angiotensin System, ACE cleaves a C-terminal dipeptide from angiotensin I (Ang I) to release the vasoactive peptide angiotensin II (Ang II). Ang II binds to the angiotensin receptor resulting in vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure. ACE is also a component of the kinin-kallikrein system, where it breaks down bradykinin, a vasodilator and proinflammatory peptide.

The brain has its own local Renin Angiotensin System, which modulates cerebrovascular blood pressure. ACE in the brain also cleaves amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ42) to Aβ40. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), Aβ42 aggregates into toxic amyloid plaques, whereas Aβ40 shows less propensity to aggregate. Higher levels of ACE are therefore suggested to be beneficial in AD.

ACE inhibitors are commonly used to treat hypertension. Similarly, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are also used to treat hypertension and other cardiovascular disorders. ACE inhibitors reduce the formation of Ang II and inhibit degradation of bradykinin, causing systemic dilation of blood vessels and lowering of blood pressure. Classical ACE inhibitors (with the common suffix, -pril) do not inhibit ACE2.

External sources of pharmacological information for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme :

    Literature for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme

    Tocris offers the following scientific literature for Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!

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    Cardiovascular

    Cardiovascular Research Product Guide

    A collection of over 250 products for cardiovascular research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

    • Hypertension
    • Thrombosis and Hemostasis
    • Atherosclerosis
    • Myocardial Infarction
    • Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury
    • Arrhythmias
    • Heart Failure

    Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Data

    Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme I Human ACE NM_152830 P22966
    Mouse Ace NM_207624 P09470
    Rat Ace NM_012544 Q8CFN1
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 Human ACE2 NM_021804 Q9BYF1
    Mouse Ace2 NM_027286 Q8R0I0
    Rat Ace2 NM_001012006 Q5EGZ1
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 3 Mouse Ace3 NM_001101453 NP_001094923