The cyclase enzymes, adenylyl cyclase and guanylyl cyclase, convert ATP and GTP to cAMP and cGMP respectively, plus pyrophosphate. These enzymes are important in the production of second messenger molecules and so have a vital role in signal transduction in a variety of physiological processes.

Enzyme Data

Related Targets

    Literature for Cyclases

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    • 7-TM Receptors
    • Enzymes
    • Enzyme-Linked Receptors
    • Ion Channels
    • Nuclear Receptors
    • Transporters
    • Apoptosis
    • Cell Metabolism
    • Epigenetics
    • Fluorescent Imaging
    • Signal Transduction
    • Stem Cells

    Properties of Adenylyl Cyclases

    Subtype Endogenous Activators Endogenous Inhibitors
    AC1 Ca2+/Calmodulin
    PKC-evoked phosphorylation
    AC2 Gβγ
    PKC-evoked phosphorylation
    AC3 Ca2+/Calmodulin
    PKC-evoked phosphorylation
    CaMKII-evoked phosphorylation
    AC4 Gβγ PKC-evoked phosphorylation
    AC5 PKC-evoked phosphorylation Gαi
    PKA-evoked phosphorylation
    AC6 - Gαi
    PKA-evoked phosphorylation
    PKC-evoked phosphorylation
    AC7 PKC-evoked phosphorylation -
    AC8 Ca2+ -
    AC9 - Ca2+/calcineurin


    Alexander et al (2008) Guide to receptors and channels (GRAC) 3rd edn. Br.J.Pharmacol. 153 S176.