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Nrf2 is a member of the basic leucine zipper family of transcription factors. Under normal physiological conditions, Nrf2 is degraded by the concerted actions of Keap1 and Cullin 3, yet during oxidative stress, Nrf2 promotes transcription of antioxidant genes.
|Cat No||Product Name / Activity|
|ARE activator; induces Nrf2-ARE-dependent transcription|
|Inhibits NFκB; activates Nrf2|
|Nrf2 signaling activator|
|Antitumor and anti-inflammatory; activates Nrf2|
|Activator of Nrf2 pathway; neuroprotective|
|Activates Keap1-Nrf2 pathway; also caspase-1 and NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor|
|Inhibitor of Keap1- Nrf2 interaction|
|Activator of Nrf2 pathway; primary metabolite of DMF (Cat. No. 4512)|
|Nrf2 activator; inhibits Nrf2/Keap1 interaction|
|Nrf2 pathway activator; blocks Nrf2/Keap1 interaction|
Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, also known as NFE2L2) is a member of the basic leucine zipper family of transcription factors. Under normal physiological conditions, Nrf2 has a short half-life of around 20 minutes and is retained in the cytoplasm before being degraded by the concerted actions of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and Cullin 3. Cullin 3, a ubiquitin E3 ligase ubiquitinates Nrf2, targeting it for proteasomal degradation, in a process facilitated by the adaptor protein actions of Keap1. The Nrf2-Cullin 3-Keap1 interaction has been proposed as a crucial cellular sensor of oxidative stress.
Under conditions of oxidative or electrophilic stress, critical cytosine residues in Keap1 are disrupted, preventing the ubiquitination of Nrf2 by Cullin 3. The resultant accumulation of Nrf2 in the cytoplasm and subsequent translocation into the nucleus leads to heterodimer formation with a small Maf protein. The Nrf2-Maf heterodimer binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the upstream promoter regions of several antioxidant genes. Genes whose expression is upregulated by Nrf2 activity include NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, heme oxygenase-1, glutathione S-transferases and multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps) amongst others.
Nrf2 pathway activity has shown to be impaired in several pathological states such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pulmonary fibrosis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Additionally, Nrf2 gene disruption has been shown to enhance susceptibility to emphysema after exposure to cigarette smoke. In support of this, Nrf2 gene activation in an animal model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema has demonstrated beneficial effects, suggesting that Nrf2 is a valid therapeutic target for protecting the lung against the effects of oxidative stress.