Nrf2 is a member of the basic leucine zipper family of transcription factors. Under normal physiological conditions, Nrf2 is degraded by the concerted actions of Keap1 and Cullin 3, yet during oxidative stress, Nrf2 promotes transcription of antioxidant genes.

Literature (2)
Gene Data

Nrf2 Inhibitors

Cat. No. Product Name / Activity
6243 ML 385
Nrf2 inhibitor; phenotypically lethal

Nrf2 Activators

Cat. No. Product Name / Activity
7018 CBR-470-1
Nrf2 activator; also PGK1 inhibitor
4737 CDDO Im
Nrf2 signaling activator
7199 (±)-Eriodictyol
Activates Nrf2/ARE signaling; antioxidant; also potent TRPV1 antagonist
6172 INF 4E
Activates Keap1-Nrf2 pathway; also caspase-1 and NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor
5625 ML 334
Inhibitor of Keap1- Nrf2 interaction
5293 NK 252
Nrf2 activator
6662 4-Octyl itaconate
Nrf2 activator; cell permeable
5294 Oltipraz
Nrf2 activator
5707 RA 839
Nrf2 activator; inhibits Nrf2/Keap1 interaction


Cat. No. Product Name / Activity
7627 FITC-labelled Keap1-Nrf2 probe
Fluorescent Keap1-Nrf2 peptide

Related Targets

    Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, also known as NFE2L2) is a member of the basic leucine zipper family of transcription factors. Under normal physiological conditions, Nrf2 has a short half-life of around 20 minutes and is retained in the cytoplasm before being degraded by the concerted actions of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) and Cullin 3. Cullin 3, a ubiquitin E3 ligase ubiquitinates Nrf2, targeting it for proteasomal degradation, in a process facilitated by the adaptor protein actions of Keap1. The Nrf2-Cullin 3-Keap1 interaction has been proposed as a crucial cellular sensor of oxidative stress.

    Under conditions of oxidative or electrophilic stress, critical cytosine residues in Keap1 are disrupted, preventing the ubiquitination of Nrf2 by Cullin 3. The resultant accumulation of Nrf2 in the cytoplasm and subsequent translocation into the nucleus leads to heterodimer formation with a small Maf protein. The Nrf2-Maf heterodimer binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the upstream promoter regions of several antioxidant genes. Genes whose expression is upregulated by Nrf2 activity include NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase, heme oxygenase-1, glutathione S-transferases and multidrug resistance proteins (Mrps) amongst others.

    Nrf2 pathway activity has shown to be impaired in several pathological states such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, pulmonary fibrosis and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Additionally, Nrf2 gene disruption has been shown to enhance susceptibility to emphysema after exposure to cigarette smoke. In support of this, Nrf2 gene activation in an animal model of cigarette smoke-induced emphysema has demonstrated beneficial effects, suggesting that Nrf2 is a valid therapeutic target for protecting the lung against the effects of oxidative stress.

    Literature for Nrf2

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    Nrf2 Gene Data

    Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
    Nuclear Factor (Erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) Human NFE2L2 NM_006164 Q16236
    Mouse Nfe2l2 NM_010902 Q60795
    Rat Nfe2l2 NM_031789 O54968