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Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are a superfamily of cation channels that are expressed ubiquitously and are activated by a wide range of stimuli. TRP channels have broad roles in sensory perception and integration, including in nociception, hearing, mechanosensation, taste, smell, vision and thermosensation.
All TRP channels are homo- or heterotetramers, composed of subunits with 6 transmembrane domains, which assemble to form a central pore that is permeable to cations. Cation selectivity of TRP channels is dependent on the subfamily and subtype, however for all TRP channels activation leads for a conformation change allowing channel opening and influx of cations, which leads to membrane depolarization. The cytoplasmic tails of TRP channel subunits contain various structural and functional domains, dependent on the TRP channel subfamily. These domains may include ankyrin repeats, coiled-coil domains, calmodulin and Ca2+ binding domains, PDZ domains, and serine/threonine kinases such as protein kinase A, protein kinase C and MAP kinases.
Unlike other ion channels, which are grouped based on a common ligand, function or ion selectivity, TRP channels are grouped into families based on sequence homology. TRPA1, TRPC, TRPM and TRPV channels have the highest homology, while TRPML and TRPP channels are more distantly related. Each family has a varying number of subtypes, with the exception of TRPA1, which is the only member of the TRPA family in mammals.
TRP channels respond to various stimuli and activation methods including:
It is generally accepted that all TRP channels are activated downstream of Gq-linked GPCRs, and RTKs. However, most TRP channels respond to multiple stimuli and integrate these stimuli, coupling them to downstream signaling cascades through elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels and membrane depolarization. This allows cells expressing TRP channels to sense and act on changes in the local environment, including changes to temperature, fluid flow and mechanical stress, and gives roles for TRP channels in processes as varied as regulation of vascular tone, fertilization, chemotaxis and neurite outgrowth.
Tocris offers the following scientific literature for Transient Receptor Potential Channels to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!
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Peripheral sensitization is the reduction in the threshold of excitability of sensory neurons that results in an augmented response to a given external stimulus. This poster outlines the excitatory and inhibitory signaling pathways involved in modulation of peripheral sensitization. The role of ion channels, GPCRs, neurotrophins, and cytokines in sensory neurons are also described.