LDL Receptors

The low density lipoprotein receptor gene family is a group of endocytic receptors that mediate the uptake of lipoproteins. There are nine LDL receptors in mammals, LDL, VLDL, ApoER2, LRP5, LRP6, MEGF7, LRP1, LRP1B and Megalin, all sharing common structural motifs.

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Background
Literature
Gene Data

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Cat No Product Name / Activity
3405 COG 133
ApoE peptide fragment

The low density lipoprotein receptor gene family is a group of endocytic receptors that mediate the uptake of lipoproteins. There are nine LDL receptors in mammals, LDL, VLDL, ApoER2, LRP5, LRP6, MEGF7, LRP1, LRP1B and Megalin, all of which share common structural motifs for receptor-mediated endocytosis. The extracellular domains contain clusters of complement-type repeats and epidermal growth factor precursor domains which are essential for ligand binding and pH-dependent release of ligands in endosomes respectively. The cytoplasmic tails contain recognition sites for cytosolic adaptor protein, such as those that regulate internalization via clathrin coated pits.

The prototype of this family is the LDL receptor that mediates cellular uptake of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins. Mutations in this receptor result in accumulation of LDL particles in the circulaton, causing in hypercholesterolemia. Cholesterol homeostasis is the role that is commonly associated with members of the LDL receptor family. However, knockout studies have uncovered a range of additional activities. The LDL receptors also bind to proteases, signaling molecules and heat shock proteins, resulting in endocytic uptake, but also affecting other cellular processes including migration, pericellular proteolysis, synaptic plasticity and antigen presentation.

More than a decade ago, apolipoprotein E4 (ApoE4) was identified as a primary genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. LDL, LRP1, VLDL and ApoER2 receptors have all been identified as brain apoE receptors. LDL is also directly involved in atherosclerosis. When LDL-cholesterol in the blood becomes oxidized it causes damage to the artery wall and initiates an immune response that results in the formation of the atherosclerotic plaque.

Literature for LDL Receptors

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New Product Guide (Spring/Summer 2017)

Our new product guide highlights over 130 new products added to the Tocris Bioscience range during the first half of 2017.

  • 7-TM Receptors
  • Enzymes
  • Enzyme-Linked Receptors
  • Ion Channels
  • Nuclear Receptors
  • Transporters
  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Metabolism
  • Epigenetics
  • Fluorescent Imaging
  • Signal Transduction
  • Stem Cells

LDL Receptor Family Gene Data

Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
LDLR Human LDLR NM_000527 P01130
Mouse Ldlr NM_010700 P35951
Rat Ldlr NM_175762 P35952
VLDLR Human VLDLR NM_003383 P98155
Mouse Vldlr NM_013703 P98156
Rat Vldlr NM_013155 P98166
ApoER2 Human LRP8 NM_004631 Q14114
Mouse Lrp8 NM_053073 Q924X6
LRP5 Human LRP5 NM_002335 O75197
Mouse Lrp5 NM_008513 Q91VN0
LRP6 Human LRP6 NM_002336 O75581
Mouse Lrp6 NM_008514 O88572
MEGF7 Human LPR4 NM_002334 O75096
Mouse Lrp4 NM_172668 Q8VI56
Rat Lrp4 NM_031322 Q76LU2
LRP1 Human LRP1 NM_002332 Q07954
Mouse Lrp1 NM_008512 Q91ZX7
LRP1B Human LRP1B NM_018557 Q9NZR2
Mouse Lrp1b NM_053011 Q9JI18
Megalin Human LRP2 NM_004525 P98164
Mouse Lrp2 NM_001081088 A2ARV4
Rat Lrp2 NM_030827 P98158