RAGE

The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE; AGER) is a multiligand cell surface protein belonging to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. RAGE acts as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and is involved in inflammation and the immune response.

Products
Background
Literature

Antagonists

Cat No Product Name / Activity
6237 FPS ZM1
High affinity antagonist of RAGE
6259 RAGE antagonist peptide
RAGE antagonist

The receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE; AGER) is a multiligand cell surface protein belonging to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. RAGE acts as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) and is involved in inflammation and the immune response.

RAGE is composed of an extracellular V domain, which binds multiple ligands, 2 C-type immunoglobulin domains, a single transmembrane helix and a cytoplasmic tail, which is required for RAGE-mediated signaling. Interestingly unlike many receptors, RAGE appears to form multimers before ligand binding. RAGE interacts with many downstream molecules, including the cytoskeletal protein Diaphanous-1 (Dia-1), the adaptor protein TIRAP and ERK1/2.

RAGE are expressed in mammals, and are structurally closely related to cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). RAGE is normally expressed at very low levels in most cells, but is expressed at high levels in alveolar type I cells in the lungs. When expressed at high levels, RAGE mediates cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix and to other cells through homophilic interactions.

RAGE binds many ligands including advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), from which its name is derived. RAGE also binds damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) released during tissue damage, including the prototypical damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) - high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), and several S100 proteins. Over-expression of RAGE or perpetuation of RAGE signaling leads to chronic inflammation and has been implicated in atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, respiratory disorders, liver disease, diabetic nephropathy, retinal disease and cancer. In addition, RAGE is being studied for its role in Alzheimer's disease; RAGE has been shown to play a role in regulating the influx of circulating Aβ into brain, and it mediates the ability of Aβ-laden monocytes to cross the blood brain barrier. RAGE is a promising therapeutic target, in part because studies have shown that mice lacking RAGE appear healthy and resistant to the above diseases.

Literature for RAGE

Tocris offers the following scientific literature for RAGE to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!

*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.


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