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The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family is a group of serine/threonine kinases that mediate intracellular signaling. The activation of MAPK involves a cascade consisting of MAPK kinase (also known as MAPKKK or MEKK) that activates MAPK/ERK (also known as MAPKK or MEK). This stimulates a phosphorylation-dependent increase in the activity of MAPK.
Upon activation, MAPK can phosphorylate a variety of intracellular targets including transcription factors, transcriptional adaptor proteins, membrane and cytoplasmic substrates, and other protein kinases. Three major groups of MAPK cascades have been determined: ERK1/ERK2, JNK/SAPK and p38 MAPK.
MAP kinase signaling is integral to the regulation of numerous cellular processes such as proliferation and differentiation, and as a result is an important focus of cancer and immunology research. Updated for 2016, this review discusses the regulation of the MAPK pathway and properties of MAPK cascades. Compounds available from Tocris are listed.
Recognition memory enables us to make judgements about whether or not we have encountered a particular stimulus before. This poster outlines the cellular mechanisms underlying recognition memory and its links to long-term depression, as well as the use of pharmacological intervention to assess the role of neurotransmitters in recognition memory.