Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase

Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO, EC 1.13.11.17) is a 45 kDa monomeric, heme-containing oxidoreductase which catalyzes the rate-limiting first step of the kynurenine pathway; the oxidative cleavage of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) into N-formyl-kynurenine (Nfk).

Products
Background
Literature
Gene Data

Inhibitors

Cat No Product Name / Activity
6007 INCB 024360-analog
Potent indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor
5698 1-Methyl-D-tryptophan
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor

Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO, EC 1.13.11.17) is a 45 kDa monomeric, heme-containing oxidoreductase which catalyzes the rate-limiting first step of the kynurenine pathway; the oxidative cleavage of L-tryptophan (L-Trp) into N-formyl-kynurenine (Nfk).

IDO, and the kynurenine pathway, are induced in response to several pro-inflammatory stimuli, especially IFN-γ, which leads to the production of L-Trp metabolites and the resultant depletion of L-Trp from tissues. This occurs in most tissue types, where IDO is found, but not in the liver where the cleavage of L-Trp is catalyzed by tryptophan 2,3 dioxygenase (TDO).

The enzymatic activity of IDO is dependent upon the presence of a heme group, situated between the enzyme's two α-helical domains, and the reduction of its Fe atom to the ferrous state. This allows binding of both L-Trp and O2 to the active site.

Many kynurenine pathway intermediates are neuroactive or have immune-regulating properties so IDO activity is linked to a variety of diseases. Increased levels of quinolic acid, an L-Trp metabolite that can activate NMDA receptors, has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington's disease and Alzheimer's disease, as well as anxiety, depression and epilepsy.

As well as being linked to cardiovascular disease and inflammation, IDO is also a target of interest in cancer due to the immunosuppressive effects caused by its induction. Although the depletion of L-Trp caused by IDO can slow tumor growth, it also inactivates T-cells and allows tumors to evade the immune system.

External sources of pharmacological information for Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase :

    Literature for Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase

    Tocris offers the following scientific literature for Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!

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    Indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase Gene Data

    Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
    IDO1 Human IDO1 NM_002164 P14902
    Mouse Ido1 NM_001293690 P28776
    Rat Ido1 NM_023973 Q9ERD9
    IDO2 Human IDO2 NM_194294 Q6ZQW0
    Mouse Ido2 NM_145949 Q8R0V5
    Rat Ido2 XM_003752920 F1LV46