Metformin hydrochloride

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Cat.No. 2864 - Metformin hydrochloride | C4H11N5.HCl | CAS No. 1115-70-4
Description: Activator of LKB1/AMPK; antidiabetic agent
Chemical Name: N,N-Dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide hydrochloride
Citations (6)

Biological Activity

Antidiabetic agent; lowers plasma glucose levels and improves insulin sensitivity. Inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis via activation of the LKB1/AMPK pathway. Displays antiproliferative effects in cancer cell lines. Activates the aPKC-CBP pathway in neural precursors to promote neurogenesis. Activates autophagy.

Deuterated analog also available.

Compound Libraries

Metformin hydrochloride is also offered as part of the Tocriscreen Plus, Tocriscreen Library of FDA-Approved Compounds and Tocriscreen Stem Cell Toolbox. Find out more about compound libraries available from Tocris.

Technical Data

M. Wt 165.62
Formula C4H11N5.HCl
Storage Store at RT
CAS Number 1115-70-4
PubChem ID 14219
Smiles NC(NC(N(C)C)=N)=N.Cl

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.

Solubility Data

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
DMSO 8.28 50
water 16.56 100

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 165.62. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to solvent of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 6.04 mL 30.19 mL 60.38 mL
5 mM 1.21 mL 6.04 mL 12.08 mL
10 mM 0.6 mL 3.02 mL 6.04 mL
50 mM 0.12 mL 0.6 mL 1.21 mL

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Product Datasheets

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
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Safety Datasheet


References are publications that support the products' biological activity.

Shaw et al (2005) The kinase LKB1 mediates glucose homeostasis in liver and therapeutic effects of metformin. Science 310 1642 PMID: 16308421

Towler and Hardie (2007) AMP-activated protein kinase in metabolic control and insulin signalling. Circ.Res. 100 328 PMID: 17307971

Hirsch et al (2013) Metformin inhibits the inflammatory response associated with cellular transformation and cancer stem cell growth. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 110 972 PMID: 23277563

Wang et al (2012) Metformin activates an atypical PKC-CBP pathway to promote neurogenesis and enhance spatial memory formation. Cell Stem Cell 11 23 PMID: 22770240

Galluzzi et al (2017) Pharmacological modulation of autophagy: therapeutic potential and persisting obstacles. Nat.Rev.Drug.Discov. PMID: 28529316

If you know of a relevant reference for Metformin hydrochloride, please let us know.

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Keywords: Metformin hydrochloride, supplier, activators, LKB1/AMPK, antidiabetic, agent, AMP-Activated, Protein, Kinases, Enzyme, Substrates, Enzyme, Substrates, /, Activators, AMPK, Neural, Stem, Cells, Autophagy, AMPK, Tocris Bioscience

6 Citations for Metformin hydrochloride

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Metformin hydrochloride include:

Massey (2017) Modification of tumour cell metabolism modulates sensitivity to Chk1 inhibitor-induced DNA damage. Sci Rep 7 40778 PMID: 28106079

Yan et al (2015) Suppression of experimental arthritis through AMP-activated protein kinase activation and autophagy modulation. J Rheum Dis Treat 1 5 PMID: 26120598

Mo et al (2015) Cellular energy stress induces AMPK-mediated regulation of YAP and the Hippo pathway. Nat Cell Biol 17 500 PMID: 25751140

Lin et al (2015) Development of telmisartan in the therapy of spinal cord injury: pre-clinical study in rats. Nat Commun 9 4709 PMID: 26316709

Naka et al (2015) Dipeptide species regulate p38MAPK-Smad3 signalling to maintain chronic myelogenous leukaemia stem cells. BMC Cancer 6 8039 PMID: 26289811

Yung et al (2013) Activation of AMPK inhibits cervical cancer cell growth through AKT/FOXO3a/FOXM1 signaling cascade. PLoS One 13 327 PMID: 23819460

Do you know of a great paper that uses Metformin hydrochloride from Tocris? If so please let us know.

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Literature in this Area


Kinases Product Listing

A collection of over 400 products for kinase research, the listing includes inhibitors of:

  • Receptor Tyrosine Kinases
  • Protein Kinases A, C, D and G
  • PI-3 Kinase, Akt and mTOR
  • MAPK Signaling
  • Receptor Serine/Threonine Kinases

Pathways for Metformin hydrochloride


AMPK Signaling Pathway

AMPK signaling pathway plays an important role in the cellular reponse to low levels of available ATP, often caused by stresses such as heat shock, ischemia or hypoxia.