Metformin hydrochloride

Pricing Availability   Qty
Description: Activator of LKB1/AMPK; antidiabetic agent
Chemical Name: N,N-Dimethylimidodicarbonimidic diamide hydrochloride
Citations (16)
Reviews (2)
Pathways (1)

Biological Activity for Metformin hydrochloride

Metformin hydrochloride is an antidiabetic agent; lowers plasma glucose levels and improves insulin sensitivity. Inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis via activation of the LKB1/AMPK pathway. Displays antiproliferative effects in cancer cell lines via inhibition of mitochondrial complex I (MRC-1). Activates the aPKC-CBP pathway in neural precursors to promote neurogenesis. Activates autophagy. Identified by chemoinformatics as targeting human host proteins that interact with SARS-CoV-2.

Compound Libraries for Metformin hydrochloride

Metformin hydrochloride is also offered as part of the Tocriscreen 2.0 Max, Tocriscreen Epigenetics Library, Tocriscreen FDA-Approved Drugs and Tocriscreen Stem Cell Library. Find out more about compound libraries available from Tocris.

Technical Data for Metformin hydrochloride

M. Wt 165.62
Formula C4H11N5.HCl
Storage Store at RT
CAS Number 1115-70-4
PubChem ID 14219
Smiles NC(NC(N(C)C)=N)=N.Cl

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Solubility Data for Metformin hydrochloride

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
water 16.56 100
DMSO 3.31 20 with gentle warming

Preparing Stock Solutions for Metformin hydrochloride

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 165.62. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Select a batch to recalculate based on the batch molecular weight:
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 6.04 mL 30.19 mL 60.38 mL
5 mM 1.21 mL 6.04 mL 12.08 mL
10 mM 0.6 mL 3.02 mL 6.04 mL
50 mM 0.12 mL 0.6 mL 1.21 mL

Molarity Calculator

Calculate the mass, volume, or concentration required for a solution.

*When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and CoA (available online).

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.


Dilution Calculator

Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution.

Product Datasheets for Metformin hydrochloride

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
Select another batch:

References for Metformin hydrochloride

References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.

Shaw et al (2005) The kinase LKB1 mediates glucose homeostasis in liver and therapeutic effects of MetF.. Science 310 1642 PMID: 16308421

Towler and Hardie (2007) AMP-activated protein kinase in metabolic control and Ins signalling. Circ.Res. 100 328 PMID: 17307971

Hirsch et al (2013) MetF. inhibits the inflammatory response associated with cellular transformation and cancer stem cell growth. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA 110 972 PMID: 23277563

Wang et al (2012) MetF. activates an atypical PKC-CBP pathway to promote neurogenesis and enhance spatial memory formation. Cell Stem Cell 11 23 PMID: 22770240

Galluzzi et al (2017) Pharmacological modulation of autophagy: therapeutic potential and persisting obstacles. Nat.Rev.Drug.Discov. PMID: 28529316

Wheaton et al (2014) MetfF inhibits mitochondrial complex I of cancer cells to reduce tumorigenesis. Elife 3 e02242 PMID: 24843020

Gordon et al (2020) A SARS-CoV-2-human protein-protein interaction map reveals drug targets and potential drug-repurposing. Nature 583 PMID: 32353859

If you know of a relevant reference for Metformin hydrochloride, please let us know.

View Related Products by Product Action

View all AMPK Activators

Keywords: Metformin hydrochloride, Metformin hydrochloride supplier, activators, LKB1/AMPK, antidiabetic, agent, AMP-Activated, Protein, Kinases, Enzyme, Substrates, mitochondrial, complex, I, MRC1, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, severe, acute, respiratory, syndrome, /, Activators, AMPK, Neural, Stem, Cells, Autophagy, Oxidative, Phosphorylation, Coronavirus, 2864, Tocris Bioscience

16 Citations for Metformin hydrochloride

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Metformin hydrochloride include:

Xintaropoulou et al (2018) Expression of glycolytic enzymes in ovarian cancers and evaluation of the glycolytic pathway as a strategy for ovarian cancer treatment. BMC Cancer 18 636 PMID: 29866066

Soliman et al (2017) Effects of MET and a Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) ATP-Competitive Inhibitor on Targeted Metabolomics in Pancreatic Cancer Cell Line. Metabolomics (Los Angel) 6 PMID: 28217402

Yan et al (2015) Suppression of experimental arthritis through AMP-activated protein kinase activation and autophagy modulation. J Rheum Dis Treat 1 5 PMID: 26120598

Mo et al (2015) Cellular energy stress induces AMPK-mediated regulation of YAP and the Hippo pathway. Nat Cell Biol 17 500 PMID: 25751140

Yung et al (2013) Activation of AMPK inhibits cervical cancer cell growth through AKT/FOXO3a/FOXM1 signaling cascade. PLoS One 13 327 PMID: 23819460

Westergard et al (2019) Repeat-associated non-AUG translation in C9orf72-ALS/FTD is driven by neuronal excitation and stress. EMBO Mol Med 11 PMID: 30617154

Massey (2017) Modification of tumour cell metabolism modulates sensitivity to Chk1 inhibitor-induced DNA damage. Sci Rep 7 40778 PMID: 28106079

Xintaropoulou et al (2015) A comparative analysis of inhibitors of the glycolysis pathway in breast and ovarian cancer cell line models. Oncotarget 6 25677 PMID: 26259240

Bowling et al (2019) Altered steady state and activity-dependent de novo protein expression in fragile X syndrome. Nat Commun 10 1710 PMID: 30979884

Edris et al (2012) Comparative gene expression profiling of benign and malignant lesions reveals candidate therapeutic compounds for leiomyosarcoma. Sarcoma 2012 805614 PMID: 22919280

Li et al (2016) Vitamin C alleviates aging defects in a stem cell model for Werner syndrome. Protein Cell 7 478 PMID: 27271327

Valente et al (2014) OxLDL induces endothelial dysfunction and death via TRAF3IP2: inhibition by HDL3 and AMPK activators. Free Radic Biol Med 70 117 PMID: 24561578

Lin et al (2015) Development of telmis. in the therapy of spinal cord injury: pre-clinical study in rats. Nat Commun 9 4709 PMID: 26316709

Naka et al (2015) Dipeptide species regulate p38MAPK-Smad3 signalling to maintain chronic myelogenous leukaemia stem cells. BMC Cancer 6 8039 PMID: 26289811

Abdou et al (2014) A cell-autonomous molecular cascade initiated by AMP-activated protein kinase represses steroidogenesis. Mol Cell Biol 34 4257 PMID: 25225331

Marinangeli et al (2018) AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Is Essential for the Maintenance of Energy Levels during Synaptic Activation. iScience 9 1 PMID: 30368077

Do you know of a great paper that uses Metformin hydrochloride from Tocris? Please let us know.

Reviews for Metformin hydrochloride

Average Rating: 4 (Based on 2 Reviews.)

5 Star
4 Star
3 Star
2 Star
1 Star

Have you used Metformin hydrochloride?

Submit a review and receive an Amazon gift card.

$50/€35/£30/$50CAN/¥300 Yuan/¥5000 Yen for first to review with an image

$25/€18/£15/$25CAN/¥75 Yuan/¥1250 Yen for a review with an image

$10/€7/£6/$10 CAD/¥70 Yuan/¥1110 Yen for a review without an image

Submit a Review

Filter by:

Metformin treatment.
By Anonymous on 03/21/2020
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Human
Cell Line/Tissue: HPAF

1 mM add to media for 24 hours

PMID: 28217402
review image

AMPK activation.
By Anonymous on 01/30/2018
Assay Type: Ex Vivo
Species: Mouse
Cell Line/Tissue: Brain slice

Used in brain slices to activate AMPK, but no effect on cell dynamic was found. No positive control was used though, so unsure if lack of effect is due to drug...

Pathways for Metformin hydrochloride

AMPK Signaling Pathway

AMPK Signaling Pathway

AMPK signaling pathway plays an important role in the cellular reponse to low levels of available ATP, often caused by stresses such as heat shock, ischemia or hypoxia.