Kynurenic acid

Pricing Availability   Qty
Description: Broad spectrum glutamatergic antagonist
Chemical Name: 4-Hydroxyquinoline-2-carboxylic acid
Purity: ≥98% (HPLC)
Citations (15)
Literature (1)

Biological Activity for Kynurenic acid

Kynurenic acid is a broad spectrum EAA antagonist. Putative GPR35 ligand. Kynurenic acid protects tissues in cardiac, cerebral, renal, and retinal ischemia models via activation of GPR35 and induction of ATP synthase dimerization in an ATPIF1-dependent and pertussis toxin (Cat. No. 3097) sensitive manner.

Sodium Salt also available.

Compound Libraries for Kynurenic acid

Kynurenic acid is also offered as part of the Tocriscreen 2.0 Max. Find out more about compound libraries available from Tocris.

Technical Data for Kynurenic acid

M. Wt 189.17
Formula C10H7NO3
Storage Store at RT
Purity ≥98% (HPLC)
CAS Number 492-27-3
PubChem ID 3845
Smiles OC(=O)C1=CC(O)=C2C=CC=CC2=N1

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Solubility Data for Kynurenic acid

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
DMSO 9.46 50
1eq. NaOH 18.92 100

Preparing Stock Solutions for Kynurenic acid

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 189.17. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Select a batch to recalculate based on the batch molecular weight:
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 5.29 mL 26.43 mL 52.86 mL
5 mM 1.06 mL 5.29 mL 10.57 mL
10 mM 0.53 mL 2.64 mL 5.29 mL
50 mM 0.11 mL 0.53 mL 1.06 mL

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Product Datasheets for Kynurenic acid

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
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References for Kynurenic acid

References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.

Perkins and Stone (1982) An iontophoretic investigation of the actions of convulsant kynurenines and their interaction with the endogenous excitant quinolinic acid. Brain Res. 247 184 PMID: 6215086

Pittaluga et al (1997) The 'kynurenate test,' a biochemical assay for putative cognition enhancers. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 283 82 PMID: 9336311

Stone and Burton (1988) NMDA receptors and ligands in the vertebrate CNS. Prog.Neurobiol. 30 333 PMID: 2830636

Wang et al (2006) Kynurenic acid as a ligand for orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR35. J.Biol.Chem. 281 22021 PMID: 16754668

Wyant et al (2022) Mitochondrial remodeling and ischemic protection by G protein–coupled receptor 35 agonists. Science 377 621 PMID: 35926043

If you know of a relevant reference for Kynurenic acid, please let us know.

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Keywords: Kynurenic acid, Kynurenic acid supplier, Broad, spectrum, EAA, antagonists, Glutamate, Ionotropic, Non-Selective, iGluR, Receptors, mGlur, Metabotropic, ischemic, protection, Non-selective, mGlu, GPR35, Oxidative, Phosphorylation, 0223, Tocris Bioscience

15 Citations for Kynurenic acid

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Kynurenic acid include:

Carver et al (2014) Perimenstrual-like hormonal regulation of extrasynaptic δ-containing GABAA receptors mediating tonic inhibition and neurosteroid sensitivity. J Neurosci 34 14181 PMID: 25339733

Weston et al (2014) Loss of mTOR repressors Tsc1 or Pten has divergent effects on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in single hippocampal neuron cultures. Front Mol Neurosci 7 1 PMID: 24574959

Wu et al (2013) Estrous cycle regulation of extrasynaptic δ-containing GABA(A) receptor-mediated tonic inhibition and limbic epileptogenesis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 346 146 PMID: 23667248

Gouet et al (2012) On the mechanism of synaptic depression induced by CaMKIIN, an endogenous inhibitor of CaMKII. PLoS One 7 e49293 PMID: 23145145

Weston et al (2012) Multiple roles for mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission. J Neurosci 32 11441 PMID: 22895726

Mancilla (2009) Two distinct types of inhibition mediated by cartwheel cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Neurophysiol 102 1287 PMID: 19474167

Young and Neher (2009) Synaptotagmin has an essential function in synaptic vesicle positioning for synchronous release in addition to its role as a calcium sensor. J Neurosci 63 482 PMID: 19709630

Perez-Leon et al (2006) Synaptic inputs to retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock. J Neurophysiol 24 1117 PMID: 16930437

Styr et al (2019) Mitochondrial Regulation of the Hippocampal Firing Rate Set Point and Seizure Susceptibility. Neuron 102 1009 PMID: 31047779

Shinoda et al (2011) Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) promotes BDNF secretion and is critical for the development of GABAergic interneuron network. Eur J Neurosci 108 373 PMID: 21173225

Jones et al (2011) Deletion of Dlx1 results in reduced glutamatergic input to hippocampal interneurons. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 105 1984 PMID: 21325686

Patel et al (2016) Context-Dependent Modulation of GABAAR-Mediated Tonic Currents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 36 607 PMID: 26758848

Chen et al (2013) The Munc13 proteins differentially regulate readily releasable pool dynamics and calcium-dependent recovery at a central synapse. Neuron 33 8336 PMID: 23658173

Zhu et al (2011) Suppression of PKR promotes network excitability and enhanced cognition by IF.-γ-mediated disinhibition. Cell 147 1384 PMID: 22153080

Rojewska et al (2018) Kynurenic acid and zaprinast diminished CXCL17-evoked pain-related behaviour and enhanced mor. analgesia in a mouse neuropathic pain model. Pharmacol Rep 71 139 PMID: 30550994

Do you know of a great paper that uses Kynurenic acid from Tocris? Please let us know.

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Literature in this Area

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