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Biological Activity for Kynurenic acid
Kynurenic acid is a broad spectrum EAA antagonist. Putative GPR35 ligand. Kynurenic acid protects tissues in cardiac, cerebral, renal, and retinal ischemia models via activation of GPR35 and induction of ATP synthase dimerization in an ATPIF1-dependent and pertussis toxin (Cat. No. 3097) sensitive manner.
Sodium Salt also available.
Compound Libraries for Kynurenic acid
Technical Data for Kynurenic acid
|Storage||Store at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Solubility Data for Kynurenic acid
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions for Kynurenic acid
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 189.17. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||5.29 mL||26.43 mL||52.86 mL|
|5 mM||1.06 mL||5.29 mL||10.57 mL|
|10 mM||0.53 mL||2.64 mL||5.29 mL|
|50 mM||0.11 mL||0.53 mL||1.06 mL|
References for Kynurenic acid
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Perkins and Stone (1982) An iontophoretic investigation of the actions of convulsant kynurenines and their interaction with the endogenous excitant quinolinic acid. Brain Res. 247 184 PMID: 6215086
Pittaluga et al (1997) The 'kynurenate test,' a biochemical assay for putative cognition enhancers. J.Pharmacol.Exp.Ther. 283 82 PMID: 9336311
Stone and Burton (1988) NMDA receptors and ligands in the vertebrate CNS. Prog.Neurobiol. 30 333 PMID: 2830636
Wang et al (2006) Kynurenic acid as a ligand for orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR35. J.Biol.Chem. 281 22021 PMID: 16754668
Wyant et al (2022) Mitochondrial remodeling and ischemic protection by G protein–coupled receptor 35 agonists. Science 377 621 PMID: 35926043
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Keywords: Kynurenic acid, Kynurenic acid supplier, Broad, spectrum, EAA, antagonists, Glutamate, Ionotropic, Non-Selective, iGluR, Receptors, mGlur, Metabotropic, ischemic, protection, Non-selective, mGlu, GPR35, Oxidative, Phosphorylation, 0223, Tocris Bioscience
15 Citations for Kynurenic acid
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Kynurenic acid include:
Perez-Leon et al (2006) Synaptic inputs to retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock. J Neurophysiol 24 1117 PMID: 16930437
Styr et al (2019) Mitochondrial Regulation of the Hippocampal Firing Rate Set Point and Seizure Susceptibility. Neuron 102 1009 PMID: 31047779
Gouet et al (2012) On the mechanism of synaptic depression induced by CaMKIIN, an endogenous inhibitor of CaMKII. PLoS One 7 e49293 PMID: 23145145
Weston et al (2012) Multiple roles for mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic transmission. J Neurosci 32 11441 PMID: 22895726
Mancilla (2009) Two distinct types of inhibition mediated by cartwheel cells in the dorsal cochlear nucleus. J Neurophysiol 102 1287 PMID: 19474167
Carver et al (2014) Perimenstrual-like hormonal regulation of extrasynaptic δ-containing GABAA receptors mediating tonic inhibition and neurosteroid sensitivity. J Neurosci 34 14181 PMID: 25339733
Weston et al (2014) Loss of mTOR repressors Tsc1 or Pten has divergent effects on excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmission in single hippocampal neuron cultures. Front Mol Neurosci 7 1 PMID: 24574959
Wu et al (2013) Estrous cycle regulation of extrasynaptic δ-containing GABA(A) receptor-mediated tonic inhibition and limbic epileptogenesis. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 346 146 PMID: 23667248
Chen et al (2013) The Munc13 proteins differentially regulate readily releasable pool dynamics and calcium-dependent recovery at a central synapse. Neuron 33 8336 PMID: 23658173
Zhu et al (2011) Suppression of PKR promotes network excitability and enhanced cognition by IF.-γ-mediated disinhibition. Cell 147 1384 PMID: 22153080
Rojewska et al (2018) Kynurenic acid and zaprinast diminished CXCL17-evoked pain-related behaviour and enhanced mor. analgesia in a mouse neuropathic pain model. Pharmacol Rep 71 139 PMID: 30550994
Patel et al (2016) Context-Dependent Modulation of GABAAR-Mediated Tonic Currents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 36 607 PMID: 26758848
Shinoda et al (2011) Calcium-dependent activator protein for secretion 2 (CAPS2) promotes BDNF secretion and is critical for the development of GABAergic interneuron network. Eur J Neurosci 108 373 PMID: 21173225
Jones et al (2011) Deletion of Dlx1 results in reduced glutamatergic input to hippocampal interneurons. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 105 1984 PMID: 21325686
Young and Neher (2009) Synaptotagmin has an essential function in synaptic vesicle positioning for synchronous release in addition to its role as a calcium sensor. J Neurosci 63 482 PMID: 19709630
Do you know of a great paper that uses Kynurenic acid from Tocris? Please let us know.
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Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
Epilepsy is a brain disease that affects 60 million people globally. More than 20 anti-seizure drugs are currently available, but these do not address the underlying causes of the condition. This poster summarizes current knowledge about the development of the condition and highlights some approaches that have disease-modifying effects in proof-of-concept studies.
Peripheral sensitization is the reduction in the threshold of excitability of sensory neurons that results in an augmented response to a given external stimulus. This poster outlines the excitatory and inhibitory signaling pathways involved in modulation of peripheral sensitization. The role of ion channels, GPCRs, neurotrophins, and cytokines in sensory neurons are also described.
Parkinson's disease (PD) causes chronic disability and is the second most common neurodegenerative condition. This poster outlines the neurobiology of the disease, as well as highlighting current therapeutic treatments for symptomatic PD, and emerging therapeutic strategies to delay PD onset and progression.