ATPases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phosphate bond in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to form adenosine diphosphate (ADP). They harness the energy released from the breakdown of the phosphate bond and utilize it to perform other cellular reactions. ATPases are essential enzymes in all known forms of life and have fundamental roles in energy conservation, active transport and pH homeostasis.

Enzyme Data

There are three classes of ATPases, which differ in structure and the type of ion that they transport; F-ATPases (e.g. mitochondrial H+-ATPase), P-ATPases (e.g. Ca2+-ATPase, Na+,K+-ATPase) and V-ATPases (e.g. lysosomal H+-ATPase).

Properties of ATPases

Type P F V
Substances Transported H+, Na+, K+, Ca2+ H+ only H+ only
Structural and Functional Features Large catalytic α-subunits become phosphorylated during solute transport. β-subunits regulate transport Multiple TM and cytosolic subunits synthesize ATP on β-subunits, powered by movement of H+ down an electrochemical gradient Multiple TM and cytosolic subunits use energy released from ATP hydrolysis to pump H+ from cytosol to organelle lumen
Localization H+ pump: plasma membrane of plants, fungi, bacteria
Na+/K+ pump: plasma membrane of higher eukaryotes
H+/K+ pump: plasma membrane of gastric chief cells
Ca2+ pump: plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells
Ca2+ pump: sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane in muscle cells
Bacterial plasma membranes
Inner mitochondrial membrane
Thylakoid membrane of chloroplast
Vacuolar membranes in plants, yeast and other fungi
Endosomal and lyosomal membranes in eukaryotic cells
Plasma membrane of acid-secreting cells (e.g. osteoclasts)


Lodish et al (2000) Molecular Cell Biology. pp590. W.H.Freeman and Company.

ATPase Gene Data

Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
ATP1α1 Human ATP1A1 NM_000701 P05023
Mouse Atp1a1 NM_144900 Q8VDN2
Rat Atp1a1 NM_012504 P06685
ATP1α2 Human ATP1A2 NM_000702 P50993
Mouse Atp1a2 NM_178405 Q6PIE5
Rat Atp1a2 NM_012505 O88773
ATP1α3 Human ATP1A3 NM_152296 P13637
Mouse Atp1a3 NM_144921 Q6PIC6
Rat Atp1a3 NM_012506 P06687
ATP1α4 Human ATP1A4 NM_144699 Q13733
Mouse Atp1a4 TC1638247 Q9WV27
Rat Atp1a4 NM_022848 Q64541
ATP1β1 Human ATP1B1 NM_001001787 P05026
Mouse Atp1b1 NM_009721 P14094
Rat Atp1b1 NM_013113 P07340
ATP1β2 Human ATP1B2 NM_001678 P14415
Mouse Atp1b2 NM_013415 P14231
Rat Atp1b2 NM_012507 P13638
ATP1β3 Human ATP1B3 NM_001679 P54709
Mouse Atp1b3 NM_007502 P97370
Rat Atp1b3 NM_012913 Q63377
ATP1β4 Human ATP1B4 NM_012069 Q9UN42
Mouse Atp1b4 NM_133690 Q99ME6
Rat Atp1b4 NM_053381 Q7TPI3
ATP2α1 Human ATP2A1 NM_004320 O14983
Mouse Atp2a1 NM_007504 Q8R429
Rat Atp2a1 NM_058213 Q64578
ATP2α2 Human ATP2A2 NM_001681 P16615
Mouse Atp2a2 NM_001110140 O55143
Rat Atp2a2 NM_017290 P11507
ATP2α3 Human ATP2A3 NM_174953 Q93084
Mouse Atp2a3 NM_016745 Q64518
Rat Atp2a3 NM_012914 P18596
ATP2β1 Human ATP2B1 NM_001001323 P20020
Mouse Atp2b1 NM_026482 NP_080758
Rat Atp2b1 NM_053311 P11505
ATP2β2 Human ATP2B2 NM_001683 Q01814
Mouse Atp2b2 NM_009723 Q9R0K7
Rat Atp2b2 NM_012508 P11506
ATP2β3 Human ATP2B3 NM_001001344 Q16720
Mouse Atp2b3 NM_177236 NP_796210
Rat Atp2b3 NM_133288 Q5EB74
ATP2β4 Human ATP2B4 NM_001001396 P23634
Mouse Atp2b4 NM_213616 NP_998781
Rat Atp2b4 NM_001005871 Q64542
ATP2C1 Human ATP2C1 NM_001001486 P98194
Mouse Atp2c1 NM_175025 Q80XR2
Rat Atp2c1 NM_131907 Q5PQW5
ATP2C2 Human ATP2C2 NM_014861 O75185
Mouse Atp2c2 NM_026922 A7L9Z8
Rat Atp2c2 NM_134462 Q8R4C1
ATP4α Human ATP4A NM_000704 P20648
Mouse Atp4a NM_018731 Q64436
Rat Atp4a XM_341834 P09626
ATP4β Human ATP4B NM_000705 P51164
Mouse Atp4b NM_009724 P50992
Rat Atp4b NM_012510 P18598
ATP5α1 Human ATP5A1 NM_004046 P25705
Mouse Atp5a1 NM_007505 Q03265
Rat Atp5a1 NM_023093 P15999
ATP5β Human ATP5B NM_001686 P06576
Mouse Atp5b NM_016774 P56480
Rat Atp5b NM_134364 P10719
ATP5γ1 Human ATP5C1 NM_005174 P36542
Mouse Atp5c1 NM_001112738 Q91VR2
Rat Atp5c1 NM_053825 P35435
ATP5δ Human ATP5D NM_001001975 P30049
Mouse Atp5d NM_025313 Q9D3D9
Rat Atp5d NM_139106 P35434
ATP5ε Human ATP5E NM_001001977 P56381
Mouse Atp5e NM_025983 P56382
Rat Atp5e NM_139099 P29418
ATP5F1 Human ATP5F1 NM_001688 P24539
Mouse Atp5f1 NM_009725 Q9CQQ7
Rat Atp5f1 NM_134365 P19511
ATP5G1 Human ATP5G1 NM_001002027 P05496
Mouse Atp5g1 NM_007506 P48202
Rat Atp5g1 NM_017311 Q06645
ATP5G2 Human ATP5G2 NM_001002031 Q06055
Mouse Atp5g2 NM_026468 P56383
Rat Atp5g2 NM_133556 Q06646
ATP5G3 Human ATP5G3 NM_001002258 P48201
Mouse Atp5g3 NM_175015 P56384
Rat Atp5g3 NM_053756 Q71S46
ATP5H Human ATP5H NM_006356 O75947
Mouse Atp5h NM_027862 Q9DCX2
Rat Atp5h NM_019383 P31399
ATP5I Human ATP5I NM_007100 P56385
Mouse Atp5k NM_007507 Q06185
Rat Atp5i NM_080481 P29419
ATP5J Human ATP5J NM_001003696 P18859
Mouse Atp5j NM_016755 P97450
Rat Atp5j NM_053602 P21571
ATP5L Human ATP5L NM_006476 O75964
Mouse Atp5l NM_013795 Q9CPQ8
Rat Atp5l NM_212516 Q6PDU7
ATP5O Human ATP5O NM_001697 P48047
Mouse Atp5o NM_138597 Q9DB20
Rat Atp5o NM_138883 Q06647
ATP5S Human ATP5S NM_015684 Q99766
Mouse Atp5s NM_026536 Q9CRA7
Rat Atp5s NM_001007749 Q5XIM4
ATP6AP1 Human ATP6AP1 NM_001183 Q15904
Mouse Atp6ap1 NM_018794 Q9R1Q9
Rat Atp6ap1 NM_031785 O54715
ATP6AP2 Human ATP6AP2 NM_005765 Q9UG89
Mouse Atp6ap2 NM_027439 Q9CYN9
Rat Atp6ap2 XM_217592 Q6AXS4
ATP6V1A Human ATP6V1A NM_001690 P38606
Mouse Atp6v1a NM_007508 P50516
Rat Atp6v1a NM_001108318 NP_001101788
ATP6V1B1 Human ATP6V1B1 NM_001692 P15313
Mouse Atp6v1b1 NM_134157 NP_598918
Rat Atp6v1b1 NM_001107867 XP_232119
ATP6V1B2 Human ATP6V1B2 NM_001693 P21281
Mouse Atp6v1b2 NM_007509 P62814
Rat Atp6v1b2 NM_057213 P62815
ATP6V1C1 Human ATP6V1C1 NM_001695 P21283
Mouse Atp6v1c1 NM_025494 Q9Z1G3
Rat Atp6v1c1 NM_001011992 Q5FVI6
ATP6V1C2 Human ATP6V1C2 NM_144583 Q8NEY4
Mouse Atp6v1c2 NM_133699 Q99L60
Rat Atp6v1c2 NM_001014199 Q6AYE4
ATP6V1D Human ATP6V1D NM_015994 Q9Y5K8
Mouse Atp6v1d NM_023721 P57746
Rat Atp6v1d NM_199386 Q6P503
ATP6V1E1 Human ATP6V1E1 NM_001696 P36543
Mouse Atp6v1e1 NM_007510 P50518
Rat Atp6v1e1 NM_198745 Q6PCU2
ATP6V1E2 Human ATP6V1E2 NM_080653 Q96A05
Mouse Atp6v1e2 NM_029121 Q9D593
Rat Atp6v1e2 NM_001108979 XP_345633
ATP6V1F Human ATP6V1F NM_004231 P06576
Mouse Atp6v1f NM_025381 Q9D1K2
Rat Atp6v1f NM_053884 P50408
ATP6V1G1 Human ATP6V1G1 NM_004888 O75348
Mouse Atp6v1g1 NM_024173 Q9CR51
Rat Atp6v1g1 NM_001106660 XP_216411
ATP6V1G2 Human ATP6V1G2 NM_130463 O95670
Mouse Atp6v1g2 NM_023179 Q9WTT4
Rat Atp6v1g2 NM_212490 Q811A7
ATP6V1G3 Human ATP6V1G3 NM_133326 Q96LB4
Mouse Atp6v1g3 NM_177397 Q8BMC1
Rat Atp6v1g3 NM_001105991 XP_213980
ATP6V1H Human ATP6V1H NM_015941 Q9UI12
Mouse Atp6v1h NM_133826 Q8BVE3
Rat Atp6v1h NM_001013929 Q5XIL1
ATP6V0A1 Human ATP6V0A1 NM_001130020 Q93050
Mouse Atp6v0a1 NM_016920 Q9Z1G4
Rat Atp6v0a1 NM_031604 P25286
ATP6V0A2 Human ATP6V0A2 NM_012463 Q9Y487
Mouse Atp6v0a2 NM_011596 P15920
Rat Atp6v0a2 NM_053775 Q2I6B1
ATP6V0A4 Human ATP6V0A4 NM_130840 Q9HBG4
Mouse Atp6v0a4 NM_080467 Q920R6
Rat Atp6v0a4 NM_001106591 XP_231615
ATP6V0B Human ATP6V0B NM_004047 Q99437
Mouse Atp6v0b NM_033617 Q91V37
Rat Atp6v0b NM_001106681 XP_216510
ATP6V0C Human ATP6V0C NM_001694 P27449
Mouse Atp6v0c NM_009729 P63082
Rat Atp6v0c NM_130823 P63081
ATP6V0D1 Human ATP6V0D1 NM_004691 P61421
Mouse Atp6v0d1 NM_013477 P51863
Rat Atp6v0d1 NM_001011927 Q5M7T6
ATP6V0D2 Human ATP6V0D2 NM_152565 Q8N8Y2
Mouse Atp6v0d2 NM_175406 Q80SY3
Rat Atp6v0d2 NM_001011972 Q5FVL0
ATP6V0E1 Human ATP6V0E1 NM_003945 O15342
Mouse Atp6v0e NM_025272 Q9CQD8
Rat Atp6v0e1 NM_053578 Q794C0
ATP6V0E2 Human ATP6V0E2 NM_145230 Q8NHE4
Mouse Atp6v0e2 NM_133764 Q91XE7
Rat Atp6v0e2 NM_001002253 Q5EB76
ATP7α Human ATP7A NM_000052 Q04656
Mouse Atp7a NM_001109757 Q64430
Rat Atp7a NM_052803 P70705
ATP7β Human ATP7B NM_000053 P35670
Mouse Atp7b NM_007511 Q64446
Rat Atp7b NM_012511 Q64535
ATP8A1 Human ATP8A1 NM_001105529 Q9Y2Q0
Mouse Atp8a1 NM_001038999 P70704
Rat Atp8a1 XM_223390 XP_223390
ATP8A2 Human ATP8A2 NM_016529 Q9NTI2
Mouse Atp8a2 NM_015803 P98200
ATP8B1 Human ATP8B1 NM_005603 O43520
Mouse Atp8b1 NM_001001488 NP_001001488
Rat Atp8b1 NM_001106140 XP_214553
ATP8B2 Human ATP8B2 NM_020452 P98198
Mouse Atp8b2 NM_001081182 P98199
Rat Atp8b2 NM_001024798 Q4V8A7
ATP8B3 Human ATP8B3 NM_138813 O60423
Mouse Atp8b3 NM_026094 NP_080370
Rat Atp8b3 XM_234937 XP_234937
ATP8B4 Human ATP8B4 NM_024837 Q8TF62
Mouse Atp8b4 NM_001080944 NP_001074413
Rat Atp8b4 XM_001055184 Q4KLY5
ATP9A Human ATP9A NM_006045 O75110
Mouse Atp9a NM_015731 O70228
Rat Atp9a U78977 O70128
ATP9B Human ATP9B NM_198531 O43861
Mouse Atp9b NM_015805 P98195
Rat Atp9b NM_001106130 Q5XFX3
ATP10A Human ATP10A NM_024490 O60312
Mouse Atp10a NM_009728 O54827
Rat Atp10a NM_001141935 Q32Q02
ATP10B Human ATP10B NM_025153 O94823
Mouse Atp10b NM_176999 NP_795973
Rat Atp10b XM_220314 XP_220314
ATP10D Human ATP10D NM_020453 Q9P241
Mouse Atp10d NR_003966 Q8K2X1
Rat Atp10d XM_341209 XP_341210
ATP11A Human ATP11A NM_015205 P98196
Mouse Atp11a NM_015804 P98197
Rat Atp11a NM_001107324 XP_225014
ATP11B Human ATP11B XM_087254 Q9Y2G3
Mouse Atp11b NM_029570 NP_083846
Rat Atp11b XM_342228 Q5RJS7
ATP11C Human ATP11C NM_173694 Q6ZUP7
Mouse Atp11c NM_001037863 Q9QZW0
Rat Atp11c XR_007360 -
ATP12α Human ATP12A NM_001676 P54707
Mouse Atp12a NM_138652 Q9Z1W8
Rat Atp12a NM_133517 P54708
ATP13A1 Human ATP13A1 NM_020410 Q9HD20
Mouse Atp13a1 NM_133224 Q9EPE9
Rat Atp13a1 NM_001106079 XP_214310
ATP13A2 Human ATP13A2 NM_022089 Q9NQ11
Mouse Atp13a2 NM_029097 Q9CTG6
Rat Atp13a2 XM_342962 XP_342963
ATP13A3 Human ATP13A3 NM_024524 Q9H7F0
Mouse Atp13a3 NM_001128096 Q5XF89
Rat Atp13a3 XM_001053119 XP_001053119
ATP13A4 Human ATP13A4 NM_032279 Q4VNC1
Mouse Atp13a4 NM_172613 Q5XF90
Rat Atp13a4 XM_221355 XP_221355
ATP13A5 Human ATP13A5 NM_198505 Q4VNC0
Mouse Atp13a5 NM_175650 Q3TYU2
Rat Atp13a5 XM_221354 XP_221354
NTPDase 1 Human ENTPD1 NM_001776 S73813
Mouse Entpd1 NM_009848 P55772
Rat Entpd1 NM_022587 P97687
NTPDase 2 Human ENTPD2 NM_001776 S73813
Mouse Entpd2 NM_009849 O55026
Rat Entpd2 NM_172030 O35795
NTPDase 3 Human ENTPD3 NM_001248 O75355
Mouse Entpd3 NM_009849 O55026
Rat Entpd3 NM_178106 Q80Z26