Chloride Channels

Chloride channels are a family of anion-selective channels involved in a diverse range of biological processes including the regulation of the excitability of neurons, skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle, cell volume regulation, transepithelial salt transport, the acidification of intra- and extracellular compartments.

Ion Channel Data

Chloride Channel Target Files

There are five main subtypes of chloride channels:

  1. Voltage-sensitive ClC channels - a family of 9 (ClC-1-7, ClC-Ka and ClC-Kb), each containing two independently-gated pores that are important for repolarization and stabilization of membrane potentials.
  2. Ca2+-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) - widely expressed in both excitable and non-excitable cells, activated by intracellular Ca2+ and modulated by CaMKII and calcineurin
  3. High (maxi) conductance chloride channels - found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells, neurons, glia, lymphocytes, epithelial cells and placental cells, with a suggested role in cell volume regulation and apoptosis
  4. Volume-regulated chloride channels (VRACs) - have a role in the regulation of volume decrease of cells in response to swelling. Also regulate membrane excitability, transcellular Cl- transport, angiogenesis, cell proliferation and apoptosis.
  5. The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) - a cAMP-regulated epithelial cell channel involved in fluid transport. Inhibits ENaC, CaCC and VRAC channels and activates ORCC and ROMK2 channels. Homozygous Δ508 mutation causes impaired CFTR trafficking and leads to cystic fibrosis

Chloride Channel Gene Data

Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
ClC-1 Human CLCN1 NM_000083 P35523
Mouse Clcn1 NM_013491 Q64347
Rat Clcn1 NM_013147 Q7TT77
ClC-2 Human CLCN2 NM_004366 P51788
Mouse Clcn2 NM_009900 Q9R0A1
Rat Clcn2 NM_017137 P35525
ClC-3 Human CLCN3 NM_173872 P51790
Mouse Clcn3 NM_173874 P51791
Rat Clcn3 NM_053363 P51792
ClC-4 Human CLCN4 NM_001830 P51793
Mouse Clcn4-2 NM_011334 Q61418
Rat Clcn4-2 NM_022198 Q56A19
ClC-5 Human CLCN5 NM_000084 P51795
Mouse Clcn5 NM_016691 Q9WVD4
Rat Clcn5 NM_017106 P51796
ClC-6 Human CLCN6 NM_001286 Q5SNW2
Mouse Clcn6 NM_011929 O35454
Rat Clcn6 NM_001106479 XP_227870
ClC-7 Human CLCN7 NM_001287 P51798
Mouse Clcn7 NM_011930 O70496
Rat Clcn7 NM_031568 P51799
ClC-Ka Human CLCNKA NM_001042704 P51800
Mouse Clcnka NM_024412 Q9WUB7
Rat Clcnka NM_053327 Q06393
ClC-Kb Human CLCNKB NM_000085 P51801
Mouse Clcnkb NM_019701 Q9WUB6
Rat Clcnkb NM_173103 Q1W583
CaCC Human CLCA1 NM_001285 A8K7I4
Mouse Clca1 NM_009899 NP_034029
CaCC2 Human CLCA4 NM_012128 Q14CN2
Mouse Clca4 NM_139148 NP_631887
CFTR Human CFTR NM_000492 P13569
Mouse Cftr NM_021050 P26361
Rat Cftr NM_031506 P34158
CLIC1 Human CLIC1 NM_001288 O00299
Mouse Clic1 NM_033444 Q9Z1Q5
Rat Clic1 NM_001002807 Q6MG61
CLIC2 Human CLIC2 NM_001289 O15247
Rat Clic2 NM_001009651 Q5M883
CLIC3 Human CLIC3 NM_004669 O95833
Mouse Clic3 NM_027085 Q9D7P7
Rat Clic3 NM_001013080 NP_001013098
CLIC4 Human CLIC4 NM_013943 Q9Y696
Mouse Clic4 NM_013885 Q9QYB1
Rat Clic4 NM_031818 Q9Z0W7
CLIC5 Human CLIC5 NM_016929 Q9NZA1
Mouse Clic5 NM_172621 Q8BXK9
Rat Clic5 NM_053603 Q9EPT8
CLIC6 Human CLIC6 NM_053277 Q96NY7
Mouse Clic6 NM_172469 Q8BHB9
Rat Clic6 NM_176078 Q811Q2
CLNS1A Human CLNS1A NM_001293 P54105
Mouse Clns1a NM_023671 Q61189
Rat Clns1a NM_031719 Q04753