Calpains

Calpains are a group of calcium-sensitive cysteine proteases that are ubiquitously expressed in mammals. Structurally, calpains contain two subunits; an 80 kDa catalytic subunit and a 28 kDa regulatory subunit that functions as a chaperone to stabilize the 80 kDa structure.

Products
Background
Pathways
Gene Data

Inhibitors

Cat No Product Name / Activity
2950 Acetyl-Calpastatin (184-210) (human)
Selective calpain inhibitor
0448 Calpeptin
Calpain and cathepsin L inhibitor
5208 E 64
Potent and irreversible cysteine protease inhibitor
1146 MDL 28170
Potent, selective calpain and cathepsin B inhibitor
3358 MG 101
Calpain inhibitor; activates p53-dependent apoptosis
1748 MG 132
Proteasome and calpain inhibitor. Inhibits NF-κB activation
1269 PD 150606
Cell permeable calpain inhibitor

Calpains are a group of calcium-sensitive cysteine proteases that are ubiquitously expressed in mammals. This family contains 14 members with μ-calpain (calpain 1) and m-calpain (calpain 2) being the most well-characterized. Structurally, calpains contain two subunits; an 80 kDa catalytic subunit and a 28 kDa regulatory subunit that functions as a chaperone to stabilize the 80 kDa structure.

Calpains are regulated by Ca2+ concentration, phosphorylation, calpastatin and probably by altering their subcellular localization (limiting access to substrate). These endopeptidases have numerous functions including, but not limited to, remodeling of cytoskeletal attachments to the plasma membrane during cell fusion and cell motility, proteolytic modification of molecules in signal transduction pathways, degradation of enzymes controlling progression through the cell cycle, regulation of gene expression, substrate degradation in some apoptotic pathways, and an involvement in long-term potentiation.

Perturbations in calpain activity have been associated in pathophysiological processes contributing to type II diabetes (calpain 10), Alzheimer's disease (calpain 1), gastric cancer (calpain 9) and muscular dystrophy (calpain 3).

Pathways for Calpains

Apoptosis

Apoptosis Signaling Pathway

Apoptosis is a physiological process for cell death that is critical during aging and development. It may also be referred to as cell 'suicide'. Apoptosis can be triggered by events both inside and outside of the cell.

Calpain Gene Data

Gene Species Gene Symbol Gene Accession No. Protein Accession No.
Calpain 1 Human CAPN1 NM_005186 P07384
Mouse Capn1 NM_007600 O35350
Rat Capn1 NM_019152 P97571
Calpain 2 Human CAPN2 NM_001748 P17655
Mouse Capn2 NM_009794 O08529
Rat Capn2 NM_017116 Q07009
Calpain 3 Human CAPN3 NM_000070 P20807
Mouse Capn3 NM_007601 Q64691
Rat Capn3 NM_017117 Q9R113
Calpain 5 Human CAPN5 NM_004055 O15484
Mouse Capn5 NM_007602 O08688
Rat Capn5 NM_134461 Q8R4C0
Calpain 6 Human CAPN6 NM_014289 Q9Y6Q1
Mouse Capn6 NM_007603 O35646
Rat Capn6 NM_031808 O88501
Calpain 7 Human CAPN7 NM_014296 Q9Y6W3
Mouse Capn7 NM_009796 Q9R1S8
Rat Capn7 NM_001030037 Q499T5
Calpain 8 Human CAPN8 XM_001128157 A6NHC0
Rat Capn8 NM_133309 Q78EJ9
Calpain 9 Human CAPN9 NM_006615 O14815
Rat Capn9 XM_341719 O35920
Calpain 10 Human CAPN10 NM_023083 Q9HC92
Mouse Capn10 NM_011796 Q9ESK3
Rat Capn10 NM_031673 Q767K2
Calpain 11 Human CAPN11 NM_007058 Q9UMQ6
Mouse Capn11 NM_001013767 Q6J756
Rat Capn11 NM_001002806 Q4V8Q1
Calpain 12 Human CAPN12 NM_144691 Q6ZSI9
Mouse Capn12 NM_001110807 Q9ER56
Rat Capn12 NM_001110808 XP_218460
Calpain 13 Human CAPN13 NM_144575 Q6MZZ7
Mouse Capn13 NM_001033444 Q3UW68
Rat Capn13 NM_001025133 Q5BK10
Calpain 14 Human CAPN14 XR_017761 A8MX76