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Arf GTPases regulate vesicle trafficking, budding and tethering, and cytoskeleton organization. The family contains Class I, II and III Arfs, as well as related GTPases. Aberrant activity and expression of specific family members has been linked to cancer progression and tumor invasion and proliferation.
Arf (ADP-ribosylation factor) GTPases generally regulate vesicle trafficking, budding and tethering and cytoskeleton organization. Active, GTP-bound Arf proteins bind to vesicle coat proteins and adapters, including various phospholipids. There are 6 Arf isoforms in mammals, divided into three classes based on sequence homology; Class I (Arf1, Arf2 and Arf3), Class II (Arf4 and Arf5) and class III (Arf6). This family of GTpases also includes Arl (Arf-like), Arp (Arf-related) and the more remotely related Sar (secretion associated and ras related) proteins. Like other small GTPases, Arf proteins are regulated by GEFs and GAPs.
Aberrant activity or expression of Arf family members is reported to play a role in cancer cell migration, invasion and proliferation. Specifically, Arlf, Arf4 and Arf6 are abnormally expressed in different cancer cell types, including human breast, gastric, prostate and lung cancers. Arf specific GAPs and GEFs are also suggested as regulators of cancer progression and their expression has been correlated with higher grade tumors.
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