Pricing Availability   Qty
Description: Potent AMPA antagonist; more selective than CNQX (Cat. No. 0190)
Chemical Name: 2,3-Dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide
Purity: ≥98% (HPLC)
Citations (180)
Reviews (3)
Literature (5)

Biological Activity for NBQX

NBQX is a selective and competitive AMPA and kainate receptor antagonist (IC50 = 0.15 μM and 4.8 μM, respectively). NBQX blocks the antidepressant effects of 8-Hydroxy-DPAT hydrobromide (Cat. No. 0529), decreases mTOR and BDNF levels. NBQX is neuroprotective, anticonvulsant, antinociceptive and active in vivo.

NBQX disodium salt, a more water-soluble form of NBQX, also available.

Licensing Information

Sold with the permission of Novo Nordisk A/S

Compound Libraries for NBQX

NBQX is also offered as part of the Tocriscreen 2.0 Max. Find out more about compound libraries available from Tocris.

Technical Data for NBQX

M. Wt 336.28
Formula C12H8N4O6S
Storage Store at RT
Purity ≥98% (HPLC)
CAS Number 118876-58-7
PubChem ID 3272524
Smiles NS(=O)(=O)C1=CC=CC2=C3NC(=O)C(=O)NC3=CC(=C12)[N+]([O-])=O

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Solubility Data for NBQX

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
DMSO 33.63 100

Preparing Stock Solutions for NBQX

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 336.28. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Select a batch to recalculate based on the batch molecular weight:
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 2.97 mL 14.87 mL 29.74 mL
5 mM 0.59 mL 2.97 mL 5.95 mL
10 mM 0.3 mL 1.49 mL 2.97 mL
50 mM 0.06 mL 0.3 mL 0.59 mL

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Product Datasheets for NBQX

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
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References for NBQX

References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.

Gill et al (1992) The neuroprotective actions of 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoylbenzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX) in a rat focal ischaemia model. Brain Res. 580 35 PMID: 1504814

Namba et al (1994) Antiepileptogenic and anticonvulsant effects of NBQX, a selective AMPA receptor antagonist, in the rat kindling model of epilepsy. Brain Res. 638 36 PMID: 8199874

Sheardown et al (1993) The pharmacology of AMPA receptors and their antagonists. Stroke 24 146 PMID: 7504337

Zeman and Lodge (1992) Pharmacological characterization of non-NMDA subtypes of glutamate receptors in the neonatal rat hemisected spinal cord in vitro. Br.J.Pharmacol. 106 367 PMID: 1382781

Yoon et al (2005) Antinociceptive interactions between intrathecal gabapentin and MK801 or NBQX in rat formalin test. J.Korean Med.Sci. 20 307 PMID: 15832006

If you know of a relevant reference for NBQX, please let us know.

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Keywords: NBQX, NBQX supplier, Potent, selective, competitive, AMPA, antagonists, Glutamate, Receptors, iGluR, Ionotropic, neuroprotective, anticonvulsant, 0373, Tocris Bioscience

180 Citations for NBQX

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for NBQX include:

Sabater et al (2021) Voltage-gated potassium channels ensure action potential shape fidelity in distal axons. J Neurosci 41 5372 PMID: 34001627

Maher and Westbrook (2008) Co-transmission of DA and GABA in periglomerular cells. J Neurophysiol 99 1559 PMID: 18216231

Cho and Gruol (2008) The chemokine CCL2 activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in cultured rat hippocampal cells. J Neurosci 199 94 PMID: 18584881

Power and Sah (2008) Competition between calcium-activated K+ channels determines cholinergic action on firing properties of basolateral amygdala projection neurons. J Neurosci 28 3209 PMID: 18354024

Zhang et al (2008) Resveratrol attenuates early pyramidal neuron excitability impairment and death in acute rat hippocampal slices caused by oxygen-glucose deprivation. Exp Neurol 212 44 PMID: 18495119

Halff et al (2014) A novel mechanism for nicotinic potentiation of glutamatergic synapses. J Neurosci 34 2051 PMID: 24501347

Vaghi et al (2014) Rac1 and rac3 GTPases control synergistically the development of cortical and hippocampal GABAergic interneurons. Cereb Cortex 24 1247 PMID: 23258346

Bonnet et al (2013) AMPA/kainate glutamate receptors contribute to inflammation, degeneration and pain related behaviour in inflammatory stages of arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis PMID: 24130267

Ufartes et al (2013) Behavioural and functional characterization of Kv10.1 (Eag1) knockout mice. Hum Mol Genet 22 2247 PMID: 23424202

Hou and Yu (2013) Activity-regulated somatostatin expression reduces dendritic spine density and lowers excitatory synaptic transmission via postsynaptic somatostatin receptor 4. J Biol Chem 288 2501 PMID: 23233668

Akrouh and Kerschensteiner (2013) Intersecting circuits generate precisely patterned retinal waves. Neuron 79 322 PMID: 23830830

Woo et al (2013) The adhesion protein IgSF9b is coupled to neuroligin 2 via S-SCAM to promote inhibitory synapse development. J Cell Biol 201 929 PMID: 23751499

Song et al (2013) Different transporter systems regulate extracellular GABA from vesicular and non-vesicular sources. Front Cell Neurosci 7 23 PMID: 23494150

Alpert and (2013) Synaptic NMDA receptor-dependent Ca2+ entry drives membrane potential and Ca2+ oscillations in spinal ventral horn neurons. PLoS One 8 e63154 PMID: 23646190

Shin et al (2018) Drd3 Signaling in the Lateral Septum Mediates Early Life Stress-Induced Social Dysfunction. Neuron 97 195 PMID: 29276054

Marinangeli et al (2018) AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Is Essential for the Maintenance of Energy Levels during Synaptic Activation. iScience 9 1 PMID: 30368077

Mitra et al (2012) Heterogeneous reallocation of presynaptic efficacy in recurrent excitatory circuits adapting to inactivity. Nat Neurosci 15 250 PMID: 22179109

Nebieridze et al (2012) β-OE unmasks metabotropic receptor-mediated metaplasticity of NMDA receptor transmission in the female rat dentate gyrus. Psychoneuroendocrinology 37 1845 PMID: 22541715

Daftary et al (2012) Essential role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the regulation of serotonin transmission in the basolateral amygdala. Neuroscience 224 125 PMID: 22917617

Cassé et al (2012) Glutamate controls tPA recycling by astrocytes, which in turn influences glutamatergic signals. J Neurosci 32 5186 PMID: 22496564

Crawford et al (2012) Differential requirement for protein synthesis in presynaptic unmuting and muting in hippocampal glutamate terminals. PLoS One 7 e51930 PMID: 23272190

Vivar et al (2012) Mixed electrical-chemical transmission between hippocampal mossy fibers and pyramidal cells. Eur J Neurosci 35 76 PMID: 22151275

Citri et al (2009) N-MthD.-aspartate receptor- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent long-term depression are differentially regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. J Neurophysiol 30 1443 PMID: 19821836

Cho et al (2009) Chronic CXCL10 alters neuronal properties in rat hippocampal culture. J Neurosci 207 92 PMID: 19167097

Yu et al (2009) Specific synapses develop preferentially among sister excitatory neurons in the neocortex. EMBO Rep 458 501 PMID: 19204731

Karson et al (2008) Cholecystokinin inhibits endocannabinoid-sensitive hippocampal IPSPs and stimulates others. J Biol Chem 54 117 PMID: 17689570

Baltan et al (2008) White matter vulnerability to ischemic injury increases with age because of enhanced excitotoxicity. J Neurosci 28 1479 PMID: 18256269

Romo-Parra et al (2008) GABA actions in hippocampal area CA3 during postnatal development: differential shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing in somatic and dendritic compartments. J Neurosci 99 1523 PMID: 18216229

Shin et al (2008) Dendritic glutamate release produces autocrine activation of mGluR1 in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Nature 105 746 PMID: 18174329

Giordano et al (2008) Apoptosis induced by domoic acid in mouse cerebellar granule neurons involves activation of p38 and JNK MAP kinases. J Physiol 52 1100 PMID: 18164102

Iwasato et al (2008) Cortical adenylyl cyclase 1 is required for thalamocortical synapse maturation and aspects of layer IV barrel development. J Neurosci 28 5931 PMID: 18524897

Gould et al (2008) Involvement of AMPA receptors in the antidepressant-like effects of Li in the mouse tail suspension test and forced swim test. Neuropharmacology 54 577 PMID: 18096191

Kim and Tsien (2008) Synapse-specific adaptations to inactivity in hippocampal circuits achieve homeostatic gain control while dampening network reverberation. Neuron 58 925 PMID: 18579082

Ady et al (2014) Type 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1) trigger the gating of GluD2 δ glutamate receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 15 103 PMID: 24357660

Ostrowski et al (2014) Depressed GABA and glutamate synaptic signaling by 5-HT1A receptors in the nucleus tractus solitarii and their role in cardiorespiratory function. J Neurophysiol 111 2493 PMID: 24671532

Kazemipour et al (2019) Kilohertz frame-rate two-photon tomography. Nature Methods 16 778 PMID: 31363222

Rzeski et al (2001) Glutamate antagonists limit tumor growth. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98 6372 PMID: 11331750

Casado et al (2000) Presynaptic N-MthD.-aspartate receptors at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse. J Neurosci 97 11593 PMID: 11016958

Bell et al (2000) Histamine depolarizes cholinergic interneurones in the rat striatum via a H(1)-receptor mediated action. Br J Pharmacol 131 1135 PMID: 11082121

Bureau et al (2000) Kainate receptor-mediated synaptic currents in cerebellar Golgi cells are not shaped by diffusion of glutamate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97 6838 PMID: 10841579

Koester and Sakmann (1998) Calcium dynamics in single spines during coincident pre- and postsynaptic activity depend on relative timing of back-propagating action potentials and subthreshold excitatory postsynaptic potentials. PLoS One 95 9596 PMID: 9689126

Ibbotson et al (1997) Effect of chronic ethanol treatment in vivo on excitability in mouse cortical neurones in vitro. Br J Pharmacol 122 956 PMID: 9384515

Miettinen et al (1997) Spreading depression and focal brain ischemia induce cyclooxygenase-2 in cortical neurons through N-MthD.-aspartic acid-receptors and phospholipase A2. J Psychopharmacol 94 6500 PMID: 9177247

Tabor and Friedrich Pharmacological analysis of ionotropic glutamate receptor function in neuronal circuits of the zebrafish olfactory bulb. PLoS One 3 e1416 PMID: 18183297

Dennis et al (2016) Activation of Muscarinic M1 Acetylcholine Receptors Induces Long-Term Potentiation in the Hippocampus. J Neurosci 26 414 PMID: 26472558

Delaney and Crane (2016) Presynaptic GABAB receptors reduce transmission at parabrachial synapses in the lateral central amygdala by inhibiting N-type calcium channels. Sci Rep 6 19255 PMID: 26755335

Sheng et al (2015) Involvement of adrenoceptors, DA receptors and AMPA receptors in antidepressant-like action of 7-O-ethylfangchinoline in mice. Acta Pharmacol Sin 36 949 PMID: 26238289

Chen et al (2015) AMPA Receptor-mTOR Activation is Required for the Antidepressant-Like Effects of Sarcosine during the Forced Swim Test in Rats: Insertion of AMPA Receptor may Play a Role. Front Behav Neurosci 9 162 PMID: 26150775

Grimes et al (2015) A simple retinal mechanism contributes to perceptual interactions between rod- and cone-mediated responses in primates. Elife 4 PMID: 26098124

Fu et al (2003) Functional excitatory synapses in HEK293 cells expressing neuroligin and glutamate receptors. J Neurophysiol 90 3950 PMID: 12930820

Paladini et al (2003) DA controls the firing pattern of DA neurons via a network feedback mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100 2866 PMID: 12604788

Yamaguchi et al (2002) A GDP/GTP exchange protein for the Rab3 small G protein family up-regulates a postdocking step of synaptic exocytosis in central synapses. J Neurophysiol 99 14536 PMID: 12388783

Andrieux et al (2002) The suppression of brain cold-stable microtubules in mice induces synaptic defects associated with neuroleptic-sensitive behavioral disorders. Genes Dev 16 2350 PMID: 12231625

Rojas et al (2013) Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors potentiates heteromeric kainate receptors. Mol Pharmacol 83 106 PMID: 23066089

Wojcik et al (2013) Genetic markers of a Munc13 protein family member, BAIAP3, are gender specifically associated with anxiety and benzodiazepine abuse in mice and humans. Mol Med 19 135 PMID: 23698091

Koeglsperger et al (2013) Impaired glutamate recycling and GluN2B-mediated neuronal calcium overload in mice lacking TGF-β1 in the CNS. Glia 61 985 PMID: 23536313

Nguyen et al (2019) Simultaneous voltage and calcium imaging and optogenetic stimulation with high sensitivity and a wide field of view. Biomed Opt Express 10 789 PMID: 30800515

Bülow et al (2019) Homeostatic Intrinsic Plasticity Is Functionally Altered in Fmr1 KO Cortical Neurons. Cell Rep 26 1378 PMID: 30726724

Calò et al (2005) Interactions between ephrin-B and metabotropic glutamate 1 receptors in brain tissue and cultured neurons. J Neurosci 25 2245 PMID: 15745950

Rhee et al (2005) Augmenting neurotransmitter release by enhancing the apparent Ca2+ affinity of synaptotagmin 1. J Neurosci 102 18664 PMID: 16352718

Weitlauf et al (2005) Activation of NR2A-containing NMDA receptors is not obligatory for NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation. Neurochem Int 25 8386 PMID: 16162920

Gómez-Lira et al (2005) Programmed and induced phenotype of the hippocampal granule cells. J Neurosci 25 6939 PMID: 16049169

Tongiorgi et al (2004) Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA and protein are targeted to discrete dendritic laminas by events that trigger epileptogenesis. Development 24 6842 PMID: 15282290

Cronberg et al (2004) Glucose but not lactate in combination with acidosis aggravates ischemic neuronal death in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 35 753 PMID: 14963271

Huang et al (2004) Astrocyte glutamate transporters regulate metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated excitation of hippocampal interneurons. J Neurosci 24 4551 PMID: 15140926

Chevaleyre and Castillo (2004) Endocannabinoid-mediated metaplasticity in the hippocampus. Neuron 43 871 PMID: 15363397

Amat (2017) Using c-kit to genetically target cerebellar molecular layer interneurons in adult mice. PLoS One 12 e0179347 PMID: 28658323

Guo (2017) DA D4 receptor activation restores CA1 LTP in hippocampal slices from aged mice. Aging Cell 16 1323 PMID: 28975698

Kashima and Grueter (2017) Toll-like receptor 4 deficiency alters nucleus accumbens synaptic physiology and drug reward behavior. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 114 8865 PMID: 28760987

Roselli et al (2011) CDK5 is essential for soluble amyloid β-induced degradation of GKAP and remodeling of the synaptic actin cytoskeleton. PLoS One 6 e23097 PMID: 21829588

Zhang and Sun (2011) Development of NMDA NR2 subunits and their roles in critical period maturation of neocortical GABAergic interneurons. Neuropsychopharmacology 71 221 PMID: 20936660

Yang et al (2015) R-KA: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects. Transl Psychiatry 5 e632 PMID: 26327690

Jakubs et al (2006) Environment matters: synaptic properties of neurons born in the epileptic adult brain develop to reduce excitability. Neuron 52 1047 PMID: 17178407

Bäckström and Hyytiä (2006) Ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonism attenuates cue-induced cocaine seeking. Neuropsychopharmacology 31 778 PMID: 16123768

Giordano et al (2006) Neurotoxicity of domoic Acid in cerebellar granule neurons in a genetic model of glutathione deficiency. Mol Pharmacol 70 2116 PMID: 17000861

Yoon et al (2005) Antinociceptive interactions between intrathecal gabap. and MK801 or NBQX in rat formalin test. J Korean Med Sci 20 307 PMID: 15832006

Thiagarajan et al (2005) Adaptation to synaptic inactivity in hippocampal neurons. Neuron 47 725 PMID: 16129401

Sims and Hartell (2005) Differences in transmission properties and susceptibility to long-term depression reveal functional specialization of ascending axon and parallel fiber synapses to Purkinje cells. EMBO Rep 25 3246 PMID: 15788782

Newman (2005) Calcium increases in retinal glial cells evoked by light-induced neuronal activity. Nat Methods 25 5502 PMID: 15944378

Varodayan and Harrison (2014) HSF1 transcriptional activity mediates alcohol induction of Vamp2 expression and GABA release. J Neurosci 7 89 PMID: 24376402

Wang and Mattson (2014) L-type Ca2+ currents at CA1 synapses, but not CA3 or dentate granule neuron synapses, are increased in 3xTgAD mice in an age-dependent manner. Neurobiol Aging 35 88 PMID: 23932880

Wang et al (2017) Striatopallidal dysfunction underlies repetitive behavior in Shank3-deficient model of autism. J Clin Invest 127 1978 PMID: 28414301

Klug et al (2012) Genetic inhibition of CaMKII in dorsal striatal medium spiny neurons reduces functional excitatory synapses and enhances intrinsic excitability. PLoS One 7 e45323 PMID: 23028932

Schuster et al (2012) Effect of prolonged R.zole exposure on cultured motoneurons in a mouse model of ALS. J Neurophysiol 107 484 PMID: 22013234

Iskandrani et al (2015) Impact of subanesthetic doses of KA on AMPA-mediated responses in rats: An in vivo electrophysiological study on monoaminergic and glutamatergic neurons. Stroke 29 792 PMID: 25759403

Pasca et al (2015) Functional cortical neurons and astrocytes from human pluripotent stem cells in 3D culture. Front Cell Neurosci 12 671 PMID: 26005811

Perissinotti et al (2015) Calcium current homeostasis and synaptic deficits in hippocampal neurons from Kelch-like 1 knockout mice. Elife 8 444 PMID: 25610372

Saunders et al (2015) Corelease of acetylcholine and GABA from cholinergic forebrain neurons. Cereb Cortex 4 PMID: 25723967

Hirono et al (2015) BK Channels Localize to the Paranodal Junction and Regulate Action Potentials in Myelinated Axons of Cerebellar Purkinje Cells. Brain Res 35 7082 PMID: 25948259

John et al (2015) Functional α7 nicotinic receptors are expressed on immature granule cells of the postnatal dentate gyrus. J Neurosci 1601 15 PMID: 25553616

Lee et al (2015) Activation of corticostriatal circuitry relieves chronic neuropathic pain. Physiol Rep 35 5247 PMID: 25834050

Duménieu et al (2015) Afterhyperpolarization (AHP) regulates the frequency and timing of action potentials in the mitral cells of the olfactory bulb: role of olfactory experience. Sci Rep 3 PMID: 26019289

Marciniak et al (2015) The Chemokine MIP-1α/CCL3 impairs mouse hippocampal synaptic transmission, plasticity and memory. Front Synaptic Neurosci 5 15862 PMID: 26511387

Zimmermann et al (2015) Co-release of glutamate and GABA from single vesicles in GABAergic neurons exogenously expressing VGLUT3. J Neurosci 7 16 PMID: 26441632

Hooks et al (2015) Dual-channel circuit mapping reveals sensorimotor convergence in the primary motor cortex. Front Cell Neurosci 35 4418 PMID: 25762684

Ghosh et al (2015) NE Modulates Pyramidal Cell Synaptic Properties in the Anterior Piriform Cortex of Mice: Age-Dependent Effects of β-adrenoceptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 9 450 PMID: 26635530

Kardamakis et al (2015) Tectal microcircuit generating visual selection commands on gaze-controlling neurons. J Neurosci 112 E1956 PMID: 25825743

Sobieski et al (2015) Loss of Local Astrocyte Support Disrupts Action Potential Propagation and Glutamate Release Synchrony from Unmyelinated Hippocampal Axon Terminals In Vitro. PLoS One 35 11105 PMID: 26245971

Mapelli et al (2015) The effect of Dflu. on neuronal communication at a central synapse. Nat Commun 10 e0123534 PMID: 25849222

Laprell et al (2015) Optical control of NMDA receptors with a diffusible photoswitch. Front Cell Neurosci 6 8076 PMID: 26311290

Dorst et al (2020) Polysynaptic inhibition between striatal cholinergic interneurons shapes their network activity patterns in a dopamine-dependent manner Nat Comms 11 5113 PMID: 33037215

Li et al (2007) Axon and dendrite geography predict the specificity of synaptic connections in a functioning spinal cord network. Neural Dev 2 17 PMID: 17845723

Fukunaga et al (2007) Potent and specific action of the mGlu1 antagonists YM-298198 and JNJ16259685 on synaptic transmission in rat cerebellar slices. Br J Pharmacol 151 870 PMID: 17502847

Gustafson et al (2007) Endogenous D-serine contributes to NMDA-receptor-mediated light-evoked responses in the vertebrate retina. J Neurophysiol 98 122 PMID: 17507508

Albright et al (2007) Increased thalamocortical synaptic response and decreased layer IV innervation in GAP-43 knockout mice. J Neurophysiol 98 1610 PMID: 17581849

Jan and Westbrook (2007) Disynaptic amplification of metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 responses in the olfactory bulb. J Neurosci 27 132 PMID: 17202480

Empson et al (2007) Plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase 2 contributes to short-term synapse plasticity at the parallel fiber to Purkinje neuron synapse. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 27 3753 PMID: 17409239

Limon et al (2007) Properties of GluR3 receptors tagged with GFP at the amino or carboxyl terminus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104 15526 PMID: 17881566

Ziskin et al (2007) Vesicular release of glutamate from unmyelinated axons in white matter. Front Integr Neurosci 10 321 PMID: 17293857

Jensen et al (2007) Presynaptic plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoform 2a regulates excitatory synaptic transmission in rat hippocampal CA3. Chem Senses 579 85 PMID: 17170045

Takayasu et al (2006) Glial glutamate transporters maintain one-to-one relationship at the climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synapse by preventing glutamate spillover. J Neurosci 26 6563 PMID: 16775144

Surges et al (2006) Regulated expression of HCN channels and cAMP levels shape the properties of the h current in developing rat hippocampus. Mol Pain 24 94 PMID: 16882011

Selvakumar et al (2013) S-nitrosylation of AMPA receptor GluA1 regulates phosphorylation, single-channel conductance, and endocytosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110 1077 PMID: 23277581

Rompala et al (2013) Contribution of NMDA receptor hypofunction in prefrontal and cortical excitatory neurons to schizophrenia-like phenotypes. J Neurosci 8 e61278 PMID: 23613827

Pooler et al (2013) Physiological release of endogenous tau is stimulated by neuronal activity. J Neuroimmunol 14 389 PMID: 23412472

Hamida et al (2013) Protein tyrosine phosphatase α in the dorsomedial striatum promotes excessive ethanol-drinking behaviors. Nat Neurosci 33 14369 PMID: 24005290

Brady et al (2013) Moderate prenatal alcohol exposure reduces plasticity and alters NMDA receptor subunit composition in the dentate gyrus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 33 1062 PMID: 23325244

Malmersjö et al (2013) Neural progenitors organize in small-world networks to promote cell proliferation. J Neurosci 110 E1524 PMID: 23576737

Lethbridge et al (2012) Olfactory bulb glomerular NMDA receptors mediate olfactory nerve potentiation and odor preference learning in the neonate rat. J Neurosci 7 e35024 PMID: 22496886

Chacón et al (2012) Focal adhesion kinase regulates actin nucleation and neuronal filopodia formation during axonal growth. Dev Neurobiol 139 3200 PMID: 22872087

Thoeringer et al (2012) Consolidation of remote fear memories involves Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) receptor type 1-mediated enhancement of AMPA receptor GluR1 signaling in the dentate gyrus. J Neuroimmunol 37 787 PMID: 22030710

Dubos et al (2012) Alteration of synaptic network dynamics by the intellectual disability protein PAK3. Eur J Neurosci 32 519 PMID: 22238087

Jacus et al (2012) Presynaptic Cav3.2 channels regulate excitatory neurotransmission in nociceptive dorsal horn neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 32 9374 PMID: 22764245

Nelson and Glitsch (2012) Lack of kinase regulation of canonical transient receptor potential 3 (TRPC3) channel-dependent currents in cerebellar Purkinje cells. PLoS One 287 6326 PMID: 22207762

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Xiao et al (2012) The role of inhibition in oscillatory wave dynamics in the cortex. Eur J Neurosci 36 2201 PMID: 22805065

Peterfi et al (2012) Endocannabinoid-mediated long-term depression of afferent excitatory synapses in hippocampal pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons. J Neurosci 32 14448 PMID: 23055515

Giordano et al (2007) Glutathione levels modulate domoic acid induced apoptosis in mouse cerebellar granule cells. Toxicol Sci 100 433 PMID: 17804861

Duguid et al (2007) Somatodendritic release of glutamate regulates synaptic inhibition in cerebellar Purkinje cells via autocrine mGluR1 activation. J Neurosci 27 12464 PMID: 18003824

Logan et al (2007) Long-lasting NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs in mouse striatal medium spiny neurons. J Neurophysiol 98 2693 PMID: 17804581

Young and Sun (2007) Long-term modifications in the strength of excitatory associative inputs in the piriform cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 32 783 PMID: 17634388

Wilcox et al (2014) Repeated binge-like ethanol drinking alters ethanol drinking patterns and depresses striatal GABAergic transmission. Neuropsychopharmacology 39 579 PMID: 23995582

Ivanov et al (2014) Glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in neurons and astrocytes during network activity in hippocampal slices. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 34 397 PMID: 24326389

Bemben et al (2014) CaMKII phosphorylation of neuroligin-1 regulates excitatory synapses. Nat Neurosci 17 56 PMID: 24336150

Suzuki et al (2014) Imaging intraorganellar Ca2+ at subcellular resolution using CEPIA. Nat Commun 5 4153 PMID: 24923787

Pollard et al (2014) Modulation of neuronal microcircuit activities within the medial prefrontal cortex by mGluR5 positive allosteric modulator. J Psychopharmacol 28 935 PMID: 25031220

Grimes et al (2014) Cross-synaptic synchrony and transmission of signal and noise across the mouse retina. Elife 3 e03892 PMID: 25180102

Leitz and Kavalali (2014) Fast retrieval and autonomous regulation of single spontaneously recycling synaptic vesicles. Elife 3 e03658 PMID: 25415052

Cunningham et al (2014) hPSC-derived maturing GABAergic interneurons ameliorate seizures and abnormal behavior in epileptic mice. Cell Stem Cell 15 559 PMID: 25517465

Matsui and Alvarez et al (2018) Cocaine Inhibition of Synaptic Transmission in the Ventral Pallidum Is Pathway-Specific and Mediated by Serotonin. Cell Rep 23 3852 PMID: 29949769

Christie et al (2011) Ca(2+)-dependent enhancement of release by subthreshold somatic depolarization. Nat Neurosci 14 62 PMID: 21170054

Straub et al (2011) Distinct functions of kainate receptors in the brain are determined by the auxiliary subunit Neto1. Nat Neurosci 14 866 PMID: 21623363

Kopach et al (2011) Inflammation alters trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors in tonically firing lamina II neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn. Pain 152 912 PMID: 21282008

Uschakov et al (2011) Sleep-deprivation regulates α-2 adrenergic responses of rat hypocretin/orexin neurons. PLoS One 6 e16672 PMID: 21347440

Bartoletti and Thoreson (2011) Quantal amplitude at the cone ribbon synapse can be adjusted by changes in cytosolic glutamate. Mol Vis 17 920 PMID: 21541265

Etherton et al (2011) An autism-associated point mutation in the neuroligin cytoplasmic tail selectively impairs AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission in hippocampus. EMBO J 30 2908 PMID: 21642956

Higley et al (2011) Cholinergic interneurons mediate fast VGluT3-dependent glutamatergic transmission in the striatum. PLoS One 6 e19155 PMID: 21544206

Chu et al (2011) Synaptic responses evoked by tactile stimuli in Purkinje cells in mouse cerebellar cortex Crus II in vivo. PLoS One 6 e22752 PMID: 21818384

Kenny et al (2009) NMDA receptors regulate nicotine-enhanced brain reward function and intravenous nicotine self-administration: role of the ventral tegmental area and central nucleus of the amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology 34 266 PMID: 18418357

Jiang et al (2009) AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity require SQSTM1/p62. Hippocampus 19 392 PMID: 19004011

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Partial block of AMPARs.
By Sergiy Sylantyev on 12/15/2020
Assay Type: In Vitro
Species: Rat
Cell Line/Tissue: Cerebellar granule cell

NBQX was used to block evoked AMPA-receptor response in outside-out membrane patches excised from hippocampal granule cells. 0.1 µM concentration caused an immediate partial block (see illustration). Highly specific and potent ligand, but requires long sonication to prepare 10 mM DMSO stock.Illustration: I - control AMPAR response at -60 mV cell membrane potential; II - control AMPAR response at +40 mV cell membrane potential; III - NBQX at -60 mV cell membrane potential; IV - NBQX at +40 mV cell membrane potential.

PMID: 23395378
review image

Inhibition of Synaptic Transmission in the VP.
By Anonymous on 02/02/2020
Assay Type: In Vivo
Species: Mouse

NBQX (5 mM)

PMID: 29949769
review image

an AMPA receptor antagonist.
By Anonymous on 01/31/2018
Assay Type: Ex Vivo
Species: Rat

It is AMPA receptor antagonist. we used it at 30uM to block AMPA receptor in rat brain slice.

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Addiction Poster

Addiction Poster

The key feature of drug addiction is the inability to stop using a drug despite clear evidence of harm. This poster describes the brain circuits associated with addiction, and provides an overview of the main classes of addictive drugs and the neurotransmitter systems that they target.

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Alzheimer's Disease Poster

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating and progressive neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia, affecting approximately 30% of individuals aged over 85 years. This poster summarizes the cellular and molecular mechanisms of AD.

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Depression Poster

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Parkinson's Disease Poster

Parkinson's Disease Poster

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