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Description: Potent and selective non-NMDA iGluR antagonist
Alternative Names: Cyanquixaline
Chemical Name: 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione
Purity: ≥99% (HPLC)
Citations (214)
Reviews (1)
Literature (4)

Biological Activity for CNQX

CNQX is an AMPA and kainate receptor antagonist (IC50 values are 0.3 μM and 1.5 μM for AMPA and kainate receptors, respectively). CNQX is also an antagonist at the glycine modulatory site on the NMDA receptor complex (IC50 = 25 μM). CNQX can be used to isolate GABAA receptor-mediated spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents and antagonizes non-NMDA receptor-mediated responses in cultured cerebellar granule cells. CNQX shows neuroprotective effects in models of ischemia and inhibits seizure-like activity in hippocampal neurons.

CNQX Disodium Salt (Cat. No. 1045) also available.

Compound Libraries for CNQX

CNQX is also offered as part of the Tocriscreen 2.0 Max. Find out more about compound libraries available from Tocris.

Technical Data for CNQX

M. Wt 232.16
Formula C9H4N4O4
Storage Store at RT
Purity ≥99% (HPLC)
CAS Number 115066-14-3
PubChem ID 3721046
Smiles [O-][N+](=O)C1=C(C=C2NC(=O)C(=O)NC2=C1)C#N

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Solubility Data for CNQX

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
DMSO 23.22 100

Preparing Stock Solutions for CNQX

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 232.16. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Select a batch to recalculate based on the batch molecular weight:
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 4.31 mL 21.54 mL 43.07 mL
5 mM 0.86 mL 4.31 mL 8.61 mL
10 mM 0.43 mL 2.15 mL 4.31 mL
50 mM 0.09 mL 0.43 mL 0.86 mL

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Product Datasheets for CNQX

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
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References for CNQX

References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.

Honore et al (1988) Quinoxalinediones: potent competitive non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists. Science 241 701 PMID: 2899909

King et al (1992) Antagonism of synaptic potentials in ventral horn neurones by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: a study in the rat spinal cord in vitro. Br.J.Pharmacol. 107 375 PMID: 1358390

Long et al (1990) Effect of 6-cyano-2,3-dihydroxy-7-nitro-quinoxaline (CNQX) on dorsal root-, NMDA-, kainate and quisqualate-mediated depolarization of rat motoneurones in vitro. Br.J.Pharmacol. 100 850 PMID: 1976402

Watkins et al (1990) Structure-activity relationships in the development of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and competitive antagonists. TiPS 11 25 PMID: 2155495

If you know of a relevant reference for CNQX, please let us know.

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Keywords: CNQX, CNQX supplier, Potent, AMPA/kainate, antagonists, antagonism, NMDA, glycine, site, Glutamate, Kainate, Receptors, iGluR, Ionotropic, AMPA, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate, neuroprotective, Cyanquixaline, 0190, Tocris Bioscience

214 Citations for CNQX

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for CNQX include:

Fan et al (2018) All-optical synaptic electrophysiology probes mechanism of ketamine-induced disinhibition. Nat Methods 15 823 PMID: 30275587

Herman et al (2016) A cholinergic basal forebrain feeding circuit modulates appetite suppression Nature 538 253 PMID: 27698417

Selten et al (2016) Increased GABAB receptor signaling in a rat model for schizophrenia Scientific Reports 6 34240 PMID: 27687783

Accardi et al (2014) Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulate the strength of inhibitory GABA-mediated synaptic transmission. Nat Commun 5 3168 PMID: 24430741

Li et al (2014) Synthesis, transport, and metabolism of serotonin formed from exogenously applied 5-HTP after spinal cord injury in rats. J Neurophysiol 111 145 PMID: 24068759

Akerboom et al (2012) Optimization of a GCaMP calcium indicator for neural activity imaging. J Neurosci 32 13819 PMID: 23035093

Arenkiel et al (2012) Activity-induced remodeling of olfactory bulb microcircuits revealed by monosynaptic tracing. PLoS One 6 e29423 PMID: 22216277

He et al (2012) Increased Kv1 channel expression may contribute to decreased sIPSC frequency following chronic inhibition of NR2B-containing NMDAR. Neuropsychopharmacology 37 1338 PMID: 22218089

Kolind et al (2012) Opposing Effects of Intrinsic Conductance and Correlated Synaptic Input on V-Fluctuations during Network Activity. Front Comput Neurosci 6 40 PMID: 22783184

Heinrich et al (2012) K+ depolarization evokes ATP, adenosine and glutamate release from glia in rat hippocampus: a microelectrode biosensor study. Br J Pharmacol 167 1003 PMID: 22394324

Upreti et al (2012) Altered neurotransmitter release, vesicle recycling and presynaptic structure in the PilC model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain 135 869 PMID: 22344585

Xu et al (2010) High precision and fast functional mapping of cortical circuitry through a novel combination of voltage sensitive dye imaging and laser scanning photostimulation. J Neurophysiol 103 2301 PMID: 20130040

Sun et al (2010) Canonical TGF-beta signaling is required for the balance of excitatory/inhibitory transmission within the hippocampus and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle. J Neurosci 30 6025 PMID: 20427661

Dreyfus et al (2010) Selective T-type calcium channel block in thalamic neurons reveals channel redundancy and physiological impact of I(T)window. J Neurosci 30 99 PMID: 20053892

Goffin et al (2010) DA-dependent tuning of striatal inhibitory synaptogenesis. J Neurosci 30 2935 PMID: 20181591

Welzel et al (2010) Synapse clusters are preferentially formed by synapses with large recycling pool sizes. PLoS One 5 e13514 PMID: 20976002

Dimitrov and Usdin (2010) Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues modulates the mouse hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via paraventricular glutamatergic neurons. J Comp Neurol 518 4375 PMID: 20853513

Chou et al (2018) (2R,6R)-hydroxynorKA rescues chronic stress-induced depression-like behavior through its actions in the midbrain periaqueductal gray. Neuropharmacology 139 1 PMID: 29953886

He and Bausch (2014) Synaptic plasticity in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission following chronic Mem. treatment in an in vitro model of limbic epileptogenesis. Neuropharmacology 77 379 PMID: 24184417

Lee et al (2012) Lovastatin modulates glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathway and inhibits mossy fiber sprouting after PilC-induced status epilepticus. Neurochem Int 7 e38789 PMID: 22761705

Lam et al (2011) Leptin does not directly affect CNS serotonin neurons to influence appetite. Cell Metab 13 584 PMID: 21531340

Mahajan et al (2011) Exposure of neurons to excitotoxic levels of glutamate induces cleavage of the RNA editing enzyme, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2, and loss of GLUR2 editing. Neuroscience 189 305 PMID: 21620933

Zhao et al (2011) Homeostatic synaptic plasticity through changes in presynaptic calcium influx. Hear Res 31 7492 PMID: 21593333

Couchman et al (2011) Lateral superior olive function in congenital deafness. J Neurosci 277 163 PMID: 21276842

Chung et al (2011) Expression and functional properties of TRPM2 channels in DArgic neurons of the substantia nigra of the rat. Front Neural Circuits 106 2865 PMID: 21900507

Lazarevic et al (2011) Extensive remodeling of the presynaptic cytomatrix upon homeostatic adaptation to network activity silencing. J Neurosci 31 10189 PMID: 21752995

Meehan et al (2011) A new mechanism for antiepileptic drug action: vesicular entry may mediate the effects of LeveT. J Biol Chem 106 1227 PMID: 21653714

Porcher et al (2011) Positive feedback regulation between γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor signaling and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release in developing neurons. Front Neural Circuits 286 21667 PMID: 21474450

Kaminski et al (2011) 11-Deoxycortisol impedes GABAergic neurotransmission and induces drug-resistant status epilepticus in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 60 1098 PMID: 20883706

Oh et al (2010) Substitution of 5-HT1A receptor signaling by a light-activated G protein-coupled receptor. J Neurosci 285 30825 PMID: 20643652

Yeh et al (2010) SV2 mediates entry of tetanus neurotoxin into central neurons. PLoS Pathog 6 e1001207 PMID: 21124874

Noh et al (2010) Glutamate co-release at GABA/glycinergic synapses is crucial for the refinement of an inhibitory map. Neuropharmacology 13 232 PMID: 20081852

Gonzalez-Islas et al (2010) GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic motoneurons is mediated by a shift in the chloride reversal potential. J Neurosci 30 13016 PMID: 20881119

Acuna-Goycolea et al (2010) Cannabinoids excite circadian clock neurons. J Neurosci 30 10061 PMID: 20668190

Zhou et al (2018) The Mouse Pulvinar Nucleus Links the Lateral Extrastriate Cortex, Striatum, and Amygdala. J Neurosci 38 347 PMID: 29175956

Chuhma et al (2018) DA neuron glutamate cotransmission evokes a delayed excitation in lateral dorsal striatal cholinergic interneurons. Elife 7 PMID: 30295607

Gu et al (2015) miR-26a and miR-384-5p are required for LTP maintenance and spine enlargement. Nat Commun 6 6789 PMID: 25858512

Gao et al (2015) Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the excitatory-inhibitory imbalance during the critical period of postnatal respiratory development in the rat. Physiol Rep 3 PMID: 26603459

Zou et al (2015) Oligodendrocytes Are Targets of HIV-1 Tat: NMDA and AMPA Receptor-Mediated Effects on Survival and Development. J Neurosci 35 11384 PMID: 26269645

Zhang et al (2015) Presynaptic mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity: effects on vesicular release, vesicle clustering and mitochondria number. PLoS One 10 e0127461 PMID: 26011056

Neuner et al (2015) TRPC3 channels critically regulate hippocampal excitability and contextual fear memory. Behav Brain Res 281 69 PMID: 25513972

Sexton and Gelder (2015) G-Protein Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Minimally Regulates Melanopsin Activity in Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells. PLoS One 10 e0128690 PMID: 26069965

Medrihan et al (2015) Asynchronous GABA Release Is a Key Determinant of Tonic Inhibition and Controls Neuronal Excitability: A Study in the Synapsin II-/- Mouse. Cereb Cortex 25 3356 PMID: 24962993

Chanda et al (2013) Neurons generated by direct conversion of fibroblasts reproduce synaptic phenotype caused by autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110 16622 PMID: 24046374

Medrihan et al (2013) Synapsin II desynchronizes neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses by interacting with presynaptic calcium channels. Nat Commun 4 1512 PMID: 23443540

Viemari et al (2013) β-Noradrenergic receptor activation specifically modulates the generation of sighs in vivo and in vitro. EMBO J 7 179 PMID: 24273495

He et al (2013) Synaptic and extrasynaptic plasticity in glutamatergic circuits involving dentate granule cells following chronic N-MthD.-aspartate receptor inhibition. J Neurophysiol 109 1535 PMID: 23255721

Tamburri et al (2013) NMDA-receptor activation but not ion flux is required for amyloid-β induced synaptic depression. PLoS One 8 e65350 PMID: 23750255

Taylor et al (2013) Axonal translation of β-catenin regulates synaptic vesicle dynamics. J Neurosci 33 5584 PMID: 23536073

Siddoway et al (2013) An essential role for inhibitor-2 regulation of protein phosphatase-1 in synaptic scaling. J Neurophysiol 33 11206 PMID: 23825423

Maejima et al (2013) Postnatal loss of P/Q-type channels confined to rhombic-lip-derived neurons alters synaptic transmission at the parallel fiber to purkinje cell synapse and replicates genomic Cacna1a mutation phenotype of ataxia and seizures in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 33 5162 PMID: 23516282

Hira et al (2013) In vivo optogenetic tracing of functional corticocortical connections between motor forelimb areas. J Neurosci 7 55 PMID: 23554588

Zhu et al (2011) Suppression of PKR promotes network excitability and enhanced cognition by IF.-γ-mediated disinhibition. Cell 147 1384 PMID: 22153080

Welzel et al (2011) Systematic heterogeneity of fractional vesicle pool sizes and release rates of hippocampal synapses. Biophys J 100 593 PMID: 21281573

Zschenderlein et al (2011) Capsaicin-induced changes in LTP in the lateral amygdala are mediated by TRPV1. PLoS One 6 e16116 PMID: 21249195

Parker et al (2011) Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in DA neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice. J Neurosci 31 17103 PMID: 22114279

Ali (2011) CB1 modulation of temporally distinct synaptic facilitation among local circuit interneurons mediated by N-type calcium channels in CA1. J Neurophysiol 105 1051 PMID: 21123660

Bright et al (2011) Profound desensitization by ambient GABA limits activation of δ-containing GABAA receptors during spillover. J Neurosci 31 753 PMID: 21228184

Kopach et al (2011) Inflammation alters trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors in tonically firing lamina II neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn. Pain 152 912 PMID: 21282008

Mark et al (2011) Delayed postnatal loss of P/Q-type calcium channels recapitulates the absence epilepsy, dyskinesia, and ataxia phenotypes of genomic Cacna1a mutations. J Neurosci 31 4311 PMID: 21411672

Case et al (2011) Functional refinement in the projection from ventral cochlear nucleus to lateral superior olive precedes hearing onset in rat. PLoS One 6 e20756 PMID: 21694776

Khalilov et al (2011) Enhanced Synaptic Activity and Epileptiform Events in the Embryonic KCC2 Deficient Hippocampus. Front Cell Neurosci 5 23 PMID: 22065950

Liu et al (2017) IGF1-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity of Mitral Cells in Olfactory Memory during Social Learning. Neuron 95 106 PMID: 28683263

Zhu et al (2017) Impairments of spatial memory in an Alzheimer's disease model via degeneration of hippocampal cholinergic synapses. Nat Commun 8 1676 PMID: 29162816

Pose-Utrilla et al (2017) Excitotoxic inactivation of constitutive oxidative stress detoxification pathway in neurons can be rescued by PKD1. Nat Commun 8 2275 PMID: 29273751

Sun et al (2017) Proximodistal Heterogeneity of Hippocampal CA3 Pyramidal Neuron Intrinsic Properties, Connectivity, and Reactivation during Memory Recall. Neuron 95 656 PMID: 28772124

Leal et al (2017) The RNA-Binding Protein hnRNP K Mediates the Effect of BDNF on Dendritic mRNA Metabolism and Regulates Synaptic NMDA Receptors in Hippocampal Neurons. Eneuro 4 PMID: 29255796

Röther et al (2014) Dynamic properties of the alkaline vesicle population at hippocampal synapses. PLoS One 9 e102723 PMID: 25079223

Easton et al (2014) Genetic elimination of GABAergic neurotransmission reveals two distinct pacemakers for spontaneous waves of activity in the developing mouse cortex. J Neurosci 34 3854 PMID: 24623764

Tang et al (2014) Lactate-mediated glia-neuronal signalling in the mammalian brain. Nat Commun 5 3284 PMID: 24518663

Tamura et al (2014) Both neurons and astrocytes exhibited tetrodotoxin-resistant metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent spontaneous slow Ca2+ oscillations in striatum. PLoS One 9 e85351 PMID: 24454845

Wang et al (2014) Postsynaptic target specific synaptic dysfunctions in the CA3 area of BACE1 knockout mice. PLoS One 9 e92279 PMID: 24637500

Rossi et al (2014) Interleukin-1β causes excitotoxic neurodegeneration and multiple sclerosis disease progression by activating the apoptotic protein p53. Mol Neurodegener 9 56 PMID: 25495224

Wang et al (2014) Accumulation of GABAergic neurons, causing a focal ambient GABA gradient, and downregulation of KCC2 are induced during microgyrus formation in a mouse model of polymicrogyria. Cereb Cortex 24 1088 PMID: 23246779

Qiu et al (2014) GluA1 phosphorylation contributes to postsynaptic amplification of neuropathic pain in the insular cortex. J Neurosci 34 13505 PMID: 25274827

Stephenson-Jones et al (2013) Independent circuits in the basal ganglia for the evaluation and selection of actions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110 E3670 PMID: 24003130

Pi et al (2013) Cortical interneurons that specialize in disinhibitory control. Nature 503 521 PMID: 24097352

Yamagata et al (2013) Regulation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase by NMDA-receptor-induced seizure activity in cortical slices. Brain Res 1507 1 PMID: 23419897

Tyagarajan et al (2013) Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and glycogen synthase kinase 3β regulate gephyrin postsynaptic aggregation and GABAergic synaptic function in a calpain-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem 288 9634 PMID: 23408424

Zemoura et al (2013) Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation controls cell surface expression of γ-aminobutyric acid, type B receptors. J Biol Chem 288 34897 PMID: 24114844

Hur and Park (2013) Long-term potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength in spinothalamic tract neurons of the rat spinal cord. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 17 553 PMID: 24381506

Neuser et al (2013) Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit. PLoS One 8 e66497 PMID: 23840491

Yu et al (2013) Hyperactivity of ON-type retinal ganglion cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PLoS One 8 e76049 PMID: 24069457

Berlinguer-Palmini et al (2013) GPR35 activation reduces Ca2+ transients and contributes to the kynurenic acid-dependent reduction of synaptic activity at CA3-CA1 synapses. PLoS One 8 e82180 PMID: 24312407

Yeo et al (2009) Novel repression of Kcc2 transcription by REST-RE-1 controls developmental switch in neuronal chloride. J Neurosci 29 14652 PMID: 19923298

Tsuriel et al (2009) Exchange and redistribution dynamics of the cytoskeleton of the active zone molecule bassoon. PLoS One 29 351 PMID: 19144835

Prat et al (2009) Mutation of the protein kinase C site in borna disease virus phosphoprotein abrogates viral interference with neuronal signaling and restores normal synaptic activity. J Neurosci 5 e1000425 PMID: 19424436

Lin et al (2008) Integrin regulation of cytoplasmic calcium in excitatory neurons depends upon glutamate receptors and release from intracellular stores. Cerebellum 37 770 PMID: 18289871

Petzold et al (2008) Coupling of neural activity to blood flow in olfactory glomeruli is mediated by astrocytic pathways. Neuron 58 897 PMID: 18579080

Pozzi et al (2008) Activity-dependent phosphorylation of Ser187 is required for SNAP-25-negative modulation of neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105 323 PMID: 18162553

Guire et al (2008) Recruitment of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors during synaptic potentiation is regulated by CaM-kinase I. J Neurosci 28 6000 PMID: 18524905

Hong et al (2008) Glutamatergic transmission is sustained at a later period of development of medial nucleus of the trapezoid body-lateral superior olive synapses in circling mice. J Neurosci 28 13003 PMID: 19036993

Gitler et al (2008) Synapsin IIa controls the reserve pool of glutamatergic synaptic vesicles. J Neurosci 28 10835 PMID: 18945891

Frischknecht et al (2008) Activity-induced synaptic capture and exocytosis of the neuronal serine protease neurotrypsin. J Neurosci 28 1568 PMID: 18272678

Costa et al (2008) Electrophysiology and pharmacology of striatal neuronal dysfunction induced by mitochondrial complex I inhibition. J Neurosci 28 8040 PMID: 18685029

Musella (2017) A novel crosstalk within the endocannabinoid system controls GABA transmission in the striatum. Sci Rep 7 7363 PMID: 28779174

Chen et al (2017) Amygdalar endothelin-1 regulates pyramidal neuron excitability and affects anxiety. Sci Rep 7 2316 PMID: 28539637

Bernard and Zhang (2015) MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism. PLoS One 10 e0124816 PMID: 25932647

Sengupta and Thirumalai (2015) AMPA receptor mediated synaptic excitation drives state-dependent bursting in Purkinje neurons of zebrafish larvae. J Neurophysiol 4 PMID: 26416140

Schönberger et al (2014) Lamina-specific contribution of glutamatergic and GABAergic potentials to hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes. J Neurosci 8 103 PMID: 25202239

Pan et al (2014) Deranged NMDAergic cortico-subthalamic transmission underlies parkinsonian motor deficits. Eur J Neurosci 124 4629 PMID: 25202982

Oostland et al (2014) Distinct temporal expression of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors on cerebellar granule cells in mice. J Neurophysiol 13 491 PMID: 24788088

Purohit et al (2014) The Ca2+ sensor protein swiprosin-1/EFhd2 is present in neurites and involved in kinesin-mediated transport in neurons. J Biol Chem 9 e103976 PMID: 25133820

Chanda et al (2014) Generation of induced neuronal cells by the single reprogramming factor ASCL1. Stem Cell Reports 3 282 PMID: 25254342

Woo et al (2014) Isoliquiritigenin, a chalcone compound, enhances spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic response. Exp Neurobiol 23 163 PMID: 24963281

Sun et al (2011) Specificity and actions of an arylaspartate inhibitor of glutamate transport at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 pyramidal cell synapse. PLoS One 6 e23765 PMID: 21887314

Calfa et al (2011) Network hyperexcitability in hippocampal slices from Mecp2 mutant mice revealed by voltage-sensitive dye imaging. J Neurophysiol 105 1768 PMID: 21307327

Viemari et al (2011) Activation of alpha-2 noradrenergic receptors is critical for the generation of fictive eupnea and fictive gasping inspiratory activities in mammals in vitro. Eur J Neurosci 33 2228 PMID: 21615559

Wu et al (2011) Ovarian hormone deficiency reduces intrinsic excitability and abolishes acute estrogen sensitivity in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. J Neurosci 31 2638 PMID: 21325532

Li et al (2011) Concurrent imaging of synaptic vesicle recycling and calcium dynamics. Front Mol Neurosci 4 34 PMID: 22065946

Corcoran et al (2011) NMDA receptors in retrosplenial cortex are necessary for retrieval of recent and remote context fear memory. J Neurosci 31 11655 PMID: 21832195

Clark et al (2011) Endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the nucleus tractus solitarius tonically regulates synaptic and autonomic function. J Neurosci 31 12318 PMID: 21865474

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Chao et al (2009) Na+ mechanism of delta-opioid receptor induced protection from anoxic K+ leakage in the cortex. Cell Mol Life Sci 66 1105 PMID: 19189047

Chudomel et al (2009) Age- and gender-related differences in GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents in GABAergic neurons of the substantia nigra reticulata in the rat. Neuroscience 163 155 PMID: 19531372

Chuhma et al (2009) DA neuron glutamate cotransmission: frequency-dependent modulation in the mesoventromedial projection. Neuroscience 164 1068 PMID: 19729052

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Campbell et al (2015) Functional changes in glutamate transporters and astrocyte biophysical properties in a rodent model of focal cortical dysplasia. Front Cell Neurosci 8 425 PMID: 25565960

Jaiswal et al (2015) Reduction in focal ictal activity following transplantation of MGE interneurons requires expression of the GABAA receptor α4 subunit. Cell Death Dis 9 127 PMID: 25914623

Curcio et al (2015) Brain ischemia downregulates the neuroprotective GDNF-Ret signaling by a calpain-dependent mechanism in cultured hippocampal neurons. Eneuro 6 e1645 PMID: 25675305

Polito et al (2015) Selective Effects of PDE10A Inhibitors on Striatopallidal Neurons Require Phosphatase Inhibition by DARPP-32(1,2,3). J Neurosci 2 PMID: 26465004

Puranam et al (2015) Disruption of Fgf13 causes synaptic excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and genetic epilepsy and febrile seizures plus. J Neurosci 35 8866 PMID: 26063919

Baquero et al (2015) Developmental changes in synaptic distribution in arcuate nucleus neurons. Glia 35 8558 PMID: 26041922

Garthwaite et al (2015) Nitric oxide targets oligodendrocytes and promotes their morphological differentiation. Front Cell Neurosci 63 383 PMID: 25327839

Gao et al (2015) Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following PilC-induced status epilepticus in the rat. Front Cell Neurosci 9 384 PMID: 26500490

Lamanna et al (2015) A pre-docking source for the power-law behavior of spontaneous quantal release: application to the analysis of LTP. Cell Rep 9 44 PMID: 25741239

Jacoby et al (2015) An Amacrine Cell Circuit for Signaling Steady Illumination in the Retina. Br J Pharmacol 13 2663 PMID: 26711334

Connor et al (2015) β-Arrestin-2 knockout prevents development of cellular μ-opioid receptor tolerance but does not affect opioid-withdrawal-related adaptations in single PAG neurons. Elife 172 492 PMID: 24597632

Bryant et al (2015) Cholinergic control of γ power in the midbrain spatial attention network. J Neurosci 35 761 PMID: 25589769

Campbell et al (2015) GABAergic disinhibition and impaired KCC2 cotransporter activity underlie tumor-associated epilepsy. Nat Commun 63 23 PMID: 25066727

Ciani et al (2015) Wnt signalling tunes neurotransmitter release by directly targeting Synaptotagmin-1. Front Neurol 6 8302 PMID: 26400647

Haselmann et al (2015) Interactions of Human Autoantibodies with Hippocampal GABAergic Synaptic Transmission - Analyzing Antibody-Induced Effects ex vivo. Cell Death Dis 6 136 PMID: 26124746

Birnbaum et al (2015) Calcium flux-independent NMDA receptor activity is required for Aβ oligomer-induced synaptic loss. PLoS One 6 e1791 PMID: 26086964

Taylor-Burds et al (2015) Chloride Accumulators NKCC1 and AE2 in Mouse GnRH Neurons: Implications for GABAA Mediated Excitation. J Clin Invest 10 e0131076 PMID: 26110920

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Laricchiuta et al (2012) Differences in spontaneously avoiding or approaching mice reflect differences in CB1-mediated signaling of dorsal striatal transmission. PLoS One 7 e33260 PMID: 22413007

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Hulme et al (2012) Calcium-dependent but action potential-independent BCM-like metaplasticity in the hippocampus. J Neurosci 32 6785 PMID: 22593048

Xiao et al (2012) The role of inhibition in oscillatory wave dynamics in the cortex. Eur J Neurosci 36 2201 PMID: 22805065

Rossi et al (2012) Interleukin-1β causes anxiety by interacting with the endocannabinoid system. J Neurosci 32 13896 PMID: 23035099

Lörincz et al (2009) ATP-dependent infra-slow (0.1 Hz) oscillations in thalamic networks. PLoS One 4 e4447 PMID: 19212445

Park et al (2009) Role of spinal cord alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors in complete Freund's adjuvant-induced inflammatory pain. Mol Pain 4 67 PMID: 19116032

Octeau et al (2019) Transient, Consequential Increases in Extracellular Potassium Ions Accompany Channelrhodopsin2 Excitation. Cell Rep 27 2249 PMID: 31116972

Romanos et al (2019) Differences in glutamate uptake between cortical regions impact neuronal NMDA receptor activation. Commun Biol 2 127 PMID: 30963115

Yu et al (2019) Prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure induces working memory and social recognition deficits by disrupting inhibitory synaptic networks in male mice. Mol Brain 12 29 PMID: 30935412

Copeland et al (2017) Astrocytes modulate thalamic sensory processing via mGlu2 receptor activation. Neuropharmacology 121 100 PMID: 28416443

Gao and Derbenev (2013) Synaptic and extrasynaptic transmission of kidney-related neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. J Neurophysiol 110 2637 PMID: 24027107

Ben-Mabrouk and Tryba (2010) Substance P modulation of TRPC3/7 channels improves respiratory rhythm regularity and ICAN-dependent pacemaker activity. Front Cell Neurosci 31 1219 PMID: 20345918

Huang and Hsu (2010) Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors induces a nitric oxide-dependent long-term depression in rat medial prefrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex 20 982 PMID: 19666830

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CNQX impact on field potentials PPR.
By Anonymous on 06/07/2019
Assay Type: Ex Vivo
Species: Rat
Cell Line/Tissue: Anterior singulate cortex

CNQX was used to study input of non-NMDA glutamate receptors into short-term plasticity in anterior cingulate cortex. Being applied in 5 microM concentration, CNQX reduced significantly both amplitudes of field potentials and their paired-pulse ratio.

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