CNQX

Pricing Availability Delivery Time Qty
Cat.No. 0190 - CNQX | C9H4N4O4 | CAS No. 115066-14-3
Description: Potent AMPA/kainate antagonist
Chemical Name: 6-Cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione
Purity: ≥99% (HPLC)
Datasheet
Citations (157)
Literature

Biological Activity

Potent AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist. Also antagonist at glycine modulatory site on NMDA receptor complex. CNQX disodium salt (Cat. No. 1045) also available.

Technical Data

M. Wt 232.16
Formula C9H4N4O4
Storage Store at RT
Purity ≥99% (HPLC)
CAS Number 115066-14-3
PubChem ID 3721046
InChI Key RPXVIAFEQBNEAX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Smiles [O-][N+](=O)C1=C(C=C2NC(=O)C(=O)NC2=C1)C#N

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

All Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only.

Solubility Data

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
Solubility
DMSO 23.22 100

Preparing Stock Solutions

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 232.16. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to solvent of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Select a batch to recalculate based on the batch molecular weight:
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
1 mM 4.31 mL 21.54 mL 43.07 mL
5 mM 0.86 mL 4.31 mL 8.61 mL
10 mM 0.43 mL 2.15 mL 4.31 mL
50 mM 0.09 mL 0.43 mL 0.86 mL

Molarity Calculator

Calculate the mass, volume, or concentration required for a solution.
=
x
x
g/mol

*When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and SDS / CoA (available online).

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.

=
÷

Dilution Calculator

Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution.
x
=
x

Product Datasheets

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
Select another batch:
Safety Datasheet

References

References are publications that support the products' biological activity.

Honore et al (1988) Quinoxalinediones: potent competitive non-NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists. Science 241 701 PMID: 2899909

King et al (1992) Antagonism of synaptic potentials in ventral horn neurones by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione: a study in the rat spinal cord in vitro. Br.J.Pharmacol. 107 375 PMID: 1358390

Long et al (1990) Effect of 6-cyano-2,3-dihydroxy-7-nitro-quinoxaline (CNQX) on dorsal root-, NMDA-, kainate and quisqualate-mediated depolarization of rat motoneurones in vitro. Br.J.Pharmacol. 100 850 PMID: 1976402

Watkins et al (1990) Structure-activity relationships in the development of excitatory amino acid receptor agonists and competitive antagonists. TiPS 11 25 PMID: 2155495


If you know of a relevant reference for CNQX, please let us know.

View Related Products by Product Action

View all AMPA Receptor Antagonists

Keywords: CNQX, supplier, Potent, AMPA/kainate, antagonists, NMDA, glycine, site, Glutamate, Kainate, Receptors, iGluR, Ionotropic, AMPA, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate, AMPA, Receptors, Tocris Bioscience

157 Citations for CNQX

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for CNQX include:

Lee et al (2012) Lovastatin modulates glycogen synthase kinase-3β pathway and inhibits mossy fiber sprouting after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Neurochem Int 7 e38789 PMID: 22761705

Zhu et al (2011) Suppression of PKR promotes network excitability and enhanced cognition by interferon-γ-mediated disinhibition. Cell 147 1384 PMID: 22153080

Welzel et al (2011) Systematic heterogeneity of fractional vesicle pool sizes and release rates of hippocampal synapses. Biophys J 100 593 PMID: 21281573

Zschenderlein et al (2011) Capsaicin-induced changes in LTP in the lateral amygdala are mediated by TRPV1. PLoS One 6 e16116 PMID: 21249195

Parker et al (2011) Attenuating GABA(A) receptor signaling in dopamine neurons selectively enhances reward learning and alters risk preference in mice. J Neurosci 31 17103 PMID: 22114279

Ali (2011) CB1 modulation of temporally distinct synaptic facilitation among local circuit interneurons mediated by N-type calcium channels in CA1. J Neurophysiol 105 1051 PMID: 21123660

Bright et al (2011) Profound desensitization by ambient GABA limits activation of δ-containing GABAA receptors during spillover. J Neurosci 31 753 PMID: 21228184

Kopach et al (2011) Inflammation alters trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors in tonically firing lamina II neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn. Pain 152 912 PMID: 21282008

Mark et al (2011) Delayed postnatal loss of P/Q-type calcium channels recapitulates the absence epilepsy, dyskinesia, and ataxia phenotypes of genomic Cacna1a mutations. J Neurosci 31 4311 PMID: 21411672

Case et al (2011) Functional refinement in the projection from ventral cochlear nucleus to lateral superior olive precedes hearing onset in rat. PLoS One 6 e20756 PMID: 21694776

Khalilov et al (2011) Enhanced Synaptic Activity and Epileptiform Events in the Embryonic KCC2 Deficient Hippocampus. Front Cell Neurosci 5 23 PMID: 22065950

Zhao et al (2011) Homeostatic synaptic plasticity through changes in presynaptic calcium influx. Hear Res 31 7492 PMID: 21593333

Couchman et al (2011) Lateral superior olive function in congenital deafness. J Neurosci 277 163 PMID: 21276842

Chung et al (2011) Expression and functional properties of TRPM2 channels in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra of the rat. Front Neural Circuits 106 2865 PMID: 21900507

Meehan et al (2011) A new mechanism for antiepileptic drug action: vesicular entry may mediate the effects of levetiracetam. J Biol Chem 106 1227 PMID: 21653714

Porcher et al (2011) Positive feedback regulation between γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor signaling and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release in developing neurons. Front Neural Circuits 286 21667 PMID: 21474450

Kaminski et al (2011) 11-Deoxycortisol impedes GABAergic neurotransmission and induces drug-resistant status epilepticus in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 60 1098 PMID: 20883706

Lazarevic et al (2011) Extensive remodeling of the presynaptic cytomatrix upon homeostatic adaptation to network activity silencing. J Neurosci 31 10189 PMID: 21752995

Lam et al (2011) Leptin does not directly affect CNS serotonin neurons to influence appetite. Cell Metab 13 584 PMID: 21531340

Mahajan et al (2011) Exposure of neurons to excitotoxic levels of glutamate induces cleavage of the RNA editing enzyme, adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2, and loss of GLUR2 editing. Neuroscience 189 305 PMID: 21620933

Xu et al (2010) High precision and fast functional mapping of cortical circuitry through a novel combination of voltage sensitive dye imaging and laser scanning photostimulation. J Neurophysiol 103 2301 PMID: 20130040

Sun et al (2010) Canonical TGF-beta signaling is required for the balance of excitatory/inhibitory transmission within the hippocampus and prepulse inhibition of acoustic startle. J Neurosci 30 6025 PMID: 20427661

Dreyfus et al (2010) Selective T-type calcium channel block in thalamic neurons reveals channel redundancy and physiological impact of I(T)window. J Neurosci 30 99 PMID: 20053892

Goffin et al (2010) Dopamine-dependent tuning of striatal inhibitory synaptogenesis. J Neurosci 30 2935 PMID: 20181591

Welzel et al (2010) Synapse clusters are preferentially formed by synapses with large recycling pool sizes. PLoS One 5 e13514 PMID: 20976002

Dimitrov and Usdin (2010) Tuberoinfundibular peptide of 39 residues modulates the mouse hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis via paraventricular glutamatergic neurons. J Comp Neurol 518 4375 PMID: 20853513

Ben-Mabrouk and Tryba (2010) Substance P modulation of TRPC3/7 channels improves respiratory rhythm regularity and ICAN-dependent pacemaker activity. Front Cell Neurosci 31 1219 PMID: 20345918

Acuna-Goycolea et al (2010) Cannabinoids excite circadian clock neurons. J Neurosci 30 10061 PMID: 20668190

Yeh et al (2010) SV2 mediates entry of tetanus neurotoxin into central neurons. PLoS Pathog 6 e1001207 PMID: 21124874

Noh et al (2010) Glutamate co-release at GABA/glycinergic synapses is crucial for the refinement of an inhibitory map. Neuropharmacology 13 232 PMID: 20081852

Oh et al (2010) Substitution of 5-HT1A receptor signaling by a light-activated G protein-coupled receptor. J Neurosci 285 30825 PMID: 20643652

Gonzalez-Islas et al (2010) GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic motoneurons is mediated by a shift in the chloride reversal potential. J Neurosci 30 13016 PMID: 20881119

Kitagawa et al (2009) Prediction and validation of a mechanism to control the threshold for inhibitory synaptic plasticity. Mol Syst Biol 5 280 PMID: 19536203

Chao et al (2009) Na+ mechanism of delta-opioid receptor induced protection from anoxic K+ leakage in the cortex. Cell Mol Life Sci 66 1105 PMID: 19189047

Chudomel et al (2009) Age- and gender-related differences in GABAA receptor-mediated postsynaptic currents in GABAergic neurons of the substantia nigra reticulata in the rat. Neuroscience 163 155 PMID: 19531372

Chuhma et al (2009) Dopamine neuron glutamate cotransmission: frequency-dependent modulation in the mesoventromedial projection. Neuroscience 164 1068 PMID: 19729052

Prat et al (2009) Mutation of the protein kinase C site in borna disease virus phosphoprotein abrogates viral interference with neuronal signaling and restores normal synaptic activity. J Neurosci 5 e1000425 PMID: 19424436

Yeo et al (2009) Novel repression of Kcc2 transcription by REST-RE-1 controls developmental switch in neuronal chloride. J Neurosci 29 14652 PMID: 19923298

Tsuriel et al (2009) Exchange and redistribution dynamics of the cytoskeleton of the active zone molecule bassoon. PLoS One 29 351 PMID: 19144835

Hong et al (2008) Glutamatergic transmission is sustained at a later period of development of medial nucleus of the trapezoid body-lateral superior olive synapses in circling mice. J Neurosci 28 13003 PMID: 19036993

Gitler et al (2008) Synapsin IIa controls the reserve pool of glutamatergic synaptic vesicles. J Neurosci 28 10835 PMID: 18945891

Frischknecht et al (2008) Activity-induced synaptic capture and exocytosis of the neuronal serine protease neurotrypsin. J Neurosci 28 1568 PMID: 18272678

Costa et al (2008) Electrophysiology and pharmacology of striatal neuronal dysfunction induced by mitochondrial complex I inhibition. J Neurosci 28 8040 PMID: 18685029

Darbin and Wichmann (2008) Effects of striatal GABA A-receptor blockade on striatal and cortical activity in monkeys. Nat Neurosci 99 1294 PMID: 18216224

Petzold et al (2008) Coupling of neural activity to blood flow in olfactory glomeruli is mediated by astrocytic pathways. Neuron 58 897 PMID: 18579080

Lin et al (2008) Integrin regulation of cytoplasmic calcium in excitatory neurons depends upon glutamate receptors and release from intracellular stores. Cerebellum 37 770 PMID: 18289871

Pozzi et al (2008) Activity-dependent phosphorylation of Ser187 is required for SNAP-25-negative modulation of neuronal voltage-gated calcium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105 323 PMID: 18162553

Guire et al (2008) Recruitment of calcium-permeable AMPA receptors during synaptic potentiation is regulated by CaM-kinase I. J Neurosci 28 6000 PMID: 18524905

Xu et al (2007) Calpain-mediated mGluR1alpha truncation: a key step in excitotoxicity. Neuron 53 399 PMID: 17270736

Woo et al (2007) Neuregulin-1 enhances depolarization-induced GABA release. Neuron 54 599 PMID: 17521572

Xia et al (2007) Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in retinal ganglion cells. J Neurosci 27 12221 PMID: 17989288

Baldelli et al (2007) Lack of synapsin I reduces the readily releasable pool of synaptic vesicles at central inhibitory synapses. J Neurosci 27 13520 PMID: 18057210

Marinelli et al (2007) N-arachidonoyl-dopamine tunes synaptic transmission onto dopaminergic neurons by activating both cannabinoid and vanilloid receptors. Neuropsychopharmacology 32 298 PMID: 16760924

Smetana et al (2007) Muscarinic receptor activation elicits sustained, recurring depolarizations in reticulospinal neurons. J Neurophysiol 97 3181 PMID: 17344371

Limon et al (2007) Properties of GluR3 receptors tagged with GFP at the amino or carboxyl terminus. Front Neural Circuits 104 15526 PMID: 17881566

Ting et al (2007) Amyloid precursor protein overexpression depresses excitatory transmission through both presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104 353 PMID: 17185415

Sossa et al (2007) AMPAR exocytosis through NO modulation of PICK1. Neuropharmacology 53 92 PMID: 17555774

Bäckström and Hyytiä (2006) Ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor antagonism attenuates cue-induced cocaine seeking. Neuropsychopharmacology 31 778 PMID: 16123768

Kato et al (2006) Direct GABAergic and glycinergic inhibition of the substantia gelatinosa from the rostral ventromedial medulla revealed by in vivo patch-clamp analysis in rats. J Neurosci 26 1787 PMID: 16467527

Amadoro et al (2006) NMDA receptor mediates tau-induced neurotoxicity by calpain and ERK/MAPK activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103 2892 PMID: 16477009

Roberto et al (2006) Chronic ethanol exposure and protracted abstinence alter NMDA receptors in central amygdala. Neuropsychopharmacology 31 988 PMID: 16052244

Rancillac et al (2006) Glutamatergic Control of Microvascular Tone by Distinct GABA Neurons in the Cerebellum. J Neurosci 26 6997 PMID: 16807329

Qiu et al (2006) Differential reelin-induced enhancement of NMDA and AMPA receptor activity in the adult hippocampus. J Neurosci 26 12943 PMID: 17167084

Nakazawa et al (2006) NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation modulates fear learning as well as amygdaloid synaptic plasticity. Biophys J 25 2867 PMID: 16710293

Hamilton et al (2005) Properties of external plexiform layer interneurons in mouse olfactory bulb slices. Neuroscience 133 819 PMID: 15896912

Sinagra et al (2005) Reelin, very-low-density lipoprotein receptor, and apolipoprotein E receptor 2 control somatic NMDA receptor composition during hippocampal maturation in vitro. PLoS One 25 6127 PMID: 15987942

Ying and Goldstein (2005) Propofol suppresses synaptic responsiveness of somatosensory relay neurons to excitatory input by potentiating GABA(A) receptor chloride channels. Mol Pain 1 2 PMID: 15813991

Micheva and Smith (2005) Strong effects of subphysiological temperature on the function and plasticity of mammalian presynaptic terminals. J Neurophysiol 25 7481 PMID: 16107635

Karst and Joels (2005) Corticosterone slowly enhances miniature excitatory postsynaptic current amplitude in mice CA1 hippocampal cells. J Neurosci 94 3479 PMID: 16033944

Kinney (2005) GAT-3 transporters regulate inhibition in the neocortex. Mol Cell Neurosci 94 4533 PMID: 16135550

Wu et al (2004) Electrophysiological, pharmacological, and molecular evidence for alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in rat midbrain dopamine neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 311 80 PMID: 15178698

Melyan et al (2004) Metabotropic regulation of intrinsic excitability by synaptic activation of kainate receptors. J Neurosci 24 4530 PMID: 15140923

Moran et al (2004) Opioid-like actions of neuropeptide Y in rat substantia gelatinosa: Y1 suppression of inhibition and Y2 suppression of excitation. J Neurophysiol 92 3266 PMID: 15295007

Fukui and Ohmori (2004) Tonotopic gradients of membrane and synaptic properties for neurons of the chicken nucleus magnocellularis. PLoS One 24 7514 PMID: 15329398

Liu et al (2004) Astrocyte-mediated activation of neuronal kainate receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 101 3172 PMID: 14766987

Nakatsuka et al (2003) Distinct roles of P2X receptors in modulating glutamate release at different primary sensory synapses in rat spinal cord. J Neurophysiol 89 3243 PMID: 12783958

Kitano et al (2003) Direct interaction and functional coupling between metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 1 and voltage-sensitive Cav2.1 Ca2+ channel. J Biol Chem 278 25101 PMID: 12704197

Fagiolini et al (2003) Separable features of visual cortical plasticity revealed by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2A signaling. J Neurophysiol 100 2854 PMID: 12591944

Thomet et al (2000) A novel positive allosteric modulator of the GABA(A) receptor: the action of (+)-ROD188. Br J Pharmacol 131 843 PMID: 11030736

Dunaevsky et al (1999) Developmental regulation of spine motility in the mammalian central nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96 13438 PMID: 10557339

Lledo et al (1996) Mice deficient for prion protein exhibit normal neuronal excitability and synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93 2403 PMID: 8637886

Yokoi et al (1995) Refinement of odor molecule tuning by dendrodendritic synaptic inhibition in the olfactory bulb. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92 3371 PMID: 7724568

Raman and Trussell (1995) Concentration-jump analysis of voltage-dependent conductances activated by glutamate and kainate in neurons of the avian cochlear nucleus. PLoS Pathog 69 1868 PMID: 8580330

Markram and Sakmann (1994) Calcium transients in dendrites of neocortical neurons evoked by single subthreshold excitatory postsynaptic potentials via low-voltage-activated calcium channels. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91 5207 PMID: 8197208

Sinnayah et al Feeding induced by cannabinoids is mediated independently of the melanocortin system. PLoS One 3 e2202 PMID: 18493584

Assous (2017) Differential processing of thalamic information via distinct striatal interneuron circuits. Nat Commun 8 15860 PMID: 28604688

Herman et al (2016) A cholinergic basal forebrain feeding circuit modulates appetite suppression Nature 538 253 PMID: 27698417

Selten et al (2016) Increased GABAB receptor signaling in a rat model for schizophrenia Scientific Reports 6 34240 PMID: 27687783

Gu et al (2015) miR-26a and miR-384-5p are required for LTP maintenance and spine enlargement. Nat Commun 6 6789 PMID: 25858512

Gao et al (2015) Role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the excitatory-inhibitory imbalance during the critical period of postnatal respiratory development in the rat. Physiol Rep 3 PMID: 26603459

Zou et al (2015) Oligodendrocytes Are Targets of HIV-1 Tat: NMDA and AMPA Receptor-Mediated Effects on Survival and Development. J Neurosci 35 11384 PMID: 26269645

Zhang et al (2015) Presynaptic mechanisms of lead neurotoxicity: effects on vesicular release, vesicle clustering and mitochondria number. PLoS One 10 e0127461 PMID: 26011056

Neuner et al (2015) TRPC3 channels critically regulate hippocampal excitability and contextual fear memory. Behav Brain Res 281 69 PMID: 25513972

Sexton and Gelder (2015) G-Protein Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Minimally Regulates Melanopsin Activity in Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells. PLoS One 10 e0128690 PMID: 26069965

Medrihan et al (2015) Asynchronous GABA Release Is a Key Determinant of Tonic Inhibition and Controls Neuronal Excitability: A Study in the Synapsin II-/- Mouse. Cereb Cortex 25 3356 PMID: 24962993

Duc et al (2015) Bursting reverberation as a multiscale neuronal network process driven by synaptic depression-facilitation. J Neurosci 10 e0124694 PMID: 26017681

Kirwan et al (2015) Development and function of human cerebral cortex neural networks from pluripotent stem cells in vitro. Development 142 3178 PMID: 26395144

Telese et al (2015) LRP8-Reelin-Regulated Neuronal Enhancer Signature Underlying Learning and Memory Formation. Neuron 86 696 PMID: 25892301

Bryant et al (2015) Cholinergic control of γ power in the midbrain spatial attention network. J Neurosci 35 761 PMID: 25589769

Campbell et al (2015) GABAergic disinhibition and impaired KCC2 cotransporter activity underlie tumor-associated epilepsy. Nat Commun 63 23 PMID: 25066727

Ciani et al (2015) Wnt signalling tunes neurotransmitter release by directly targeting Synaptotagmin-1. Front Neurol 6 8302 PMID: 26400647

Haselmann et al (2015) Interactions of Human Autoantibodies with Hippocampal GABAergic Synaptic Transmission - Analyzing Antibody-Induced Effects ex vivo. Cell Death Dis 6 136 PMID: 26124746

Birnbaum et al (2015) Calcium flux-independent NMDA receptor activity is required for Aβ oligomer-induced synaptic loss. PLoS One 6 e1791 PMID: 26086964

Taylor-Burds et al (2015) Chloride Accumulators NKCC1 and AE2 in Mouse GnRH Neurons: Implications for GABAA Mediated Excitation. J Clin Invest 10 e0131076 PMID: 26110920

Campbell et al (2015) Functional changes in glutamate transporters and astrocyte biophysical properties in a rodent model of focal cortical dysplasia. Front Cell Neurosci 8 425 PMID: 25565960

Jaiswal et al (2015) Reduction in focal ictal activity following transplantation of MGE interneurons requires expression of the GABAA receptor α4 subunit. Cell Death Dis 9 127 PMID: 25914623

Curcio et al (2015) Brain ischemia downregulates the neuroprotective GDNF-Ret signaling by a calpain-dependent mechanism in cultured hippocampal neurons. Eneuro 6 e1645 PMID: 25675305

Polito et al (2015) Selective Effects of PDE10A Inhibitors on Striatopallidal Neurons Require Phosphatase Inhibition by DARPP-32(1,2,3). J Neurosci 2 PMID: 26465004

Puranam et al (2015) Disruption of Fgf13 causes synaptic excitatory-inhibitory imbalance and genetic epilepsy and febrile seizures plus. J Neurosci 35 8866 PMID: 26063919

Baquero et al (2015) Developmental changes in synaptic distribution in arcuate nucleus neurons. Glia 35 8558 PMID: 26041922

Garthwaite et al (2015) Nitric oxide targets oligodendrocytes and promotes their morphological differentiation. Front Cell Neurosci 63 383 PMID: 25327839

Gao et al (2015) Dendritic morphology, synaptic transmission, and activity of mature granule cells born following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus in the rat. Front Cell Neurosci 9 384 PMID: 26500490

Lamanna et al (2015) A pre-docking source for the power-law behavior of spontaneous quantal release: application to the analysis of LTP. Cell Rep 9 44 PMID: 25741239

Jacoby et al (2015) An Amacrine Cell Circuit for Signaling Steady Illumination in the Retina. Br J Pharmacol 13 2663 PMID: 26711334

Connor et al (2015) β-Arrestin-2 knockout prevents development of cellular μ-opioid receptor tolerance but does not affect opioid-withdrawal-related adaptations in single PAG neurons. Elife 172 492 PMID: 24597632

Bernard and Zhang (2015) MARK/Par1 Kinase Is Activated Downstream of NMDA Receptors through a PKA-Dependent Mechanism. PLoS One 10 e0124816 PMID: 25932647

Sengupta and Thirumalai (2015) AMPA receptor mediated synaptic excitation drives state-dependent bursting in Purkinje neurons of zebrafish larvae. J Neurophysiol 4 PMID: 26416140

Röther et al (2014) Dynamic properties of the alkaline vesicle population at hippocampal synapses. PLoS One 9 e102723 PMID: 25079223

Easton et al (2014) Genetic elimination of GABAergic neurotransmission reveals two distinct pacemakers for spontaneous waves of activity in the developing mouse cortex. J Neurosci 34 3854 PMID: 24623764

Tang et al (2014) Lactate-mediated glia-neuronal signalling in the mammalian brain. Nat Commun 5 3284 PMID: 24518663

Tamura et al (2014) Both neurons and astrocytes exhibited tetrodotoxin-resistant metabotropic glutamate receptor-dependent spontaneous slow Ca2+ oscillations in striatum. PLoS One 9 e85351 PMID: 24454845

Wang et al (2014) Postsynaptic target specific synaptic dysfunctions in the CA3 area of BACE1 knockout mice. PLoS One 9 e92279 PMID: 24637500

Rossi et al (2014) Interleukin-1β causes excitotoxic neurodegeneration and multiple sclerosis disease progression by activating the apoptotic protein p53. Mol Neurodegener 9 56 PMID: 25495224

Wang et al (2014) Accumulation of GABAergic neurons, causing a focal ambient GABA gradient, and downregulation of KCC2 are induced during microgyrus formation in a mouse model of polymicrogyria. Cereb Cortex 24 1088 PMID: 23246779

Qiu et al (2014) GluA1 phosphorylation contributes to postsynaptic amplification of neuropathic pain in the insular cortex. J Neurosci 34 13505 PMID: 25274827

He and Bausch (2014) Synaptic plasticity in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission following chronic memantine treatment in an in vitro model of limbic epileptogenesis. Neuropharmacology 77 379 PMID: 24184417

Oostland et al (2014) Distinct temporal expression of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors on cerebellar granule cells in mice. J Neurophysiol 13 491 PMID: 24788088

Pan et al (2014) Deranged NMDAergic cortico-subthalamic transmission underlies parkinsonian motor deficits. Eur J Neurosci 124 4629 PMID: 25202982

Chanda et al (2014) Generation of induced neuronal cells by the single reprogramming factor ASCL1. Stem Cell Reports 3 282 PMID: 25254342

Woo et al (2014) Isoliquiritigenin, a chalcone compound, enhances spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic response. Exp Neurobiol 23 163 PMID: 24963281

Purohit et al (2014) The Ca2+ sensor protein swiprosin-1/EFhd2 is present in neurites and involved in kinesin-mediated transport in neurons. J Biol Chem 9 e103976 PMID: 25133820

Schönberger et al (2014) Lamina-specific contribution of glutamatergic and GABAergic potentials to hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes. J Neurosci 8 103 PMID: 25202239

Stephenson-Jones et al (2013) Independent circuits in the basal ganglia for the evaluation and selection of actions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110 E3670 PMID: 24003130

Pi et al (2013) Cortical interneurons that specialize in disinhibitory control. Nature 503 521 PMID: 24097352

Yamagata et al (2013) Regulation of ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein kinase by NMDA-receptor-induced seizure activity in cortical slices. Brain Res 1507 1 PMID: 23419897

Tyagarajan et al (2013) Extracellular signal-regulated kinase and glycogen synthase kinase 3β regulate gephyrin postsynaptic aggregation and GABAergic synaptic function in a calpain-dependent mechanism. J Biol Chem 288 9634 PMID: 23408424

Zemoura et al (2013) Endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation controls cell surface expression of γ-aminobutyric acid, type B receptors. J Biol Chem 288 34897 PMID: 24114844

Hur and Park (2013) Long-term potentiation of excitatory synaptic strength in spinothalamic tract neurons of the rat spinal cord. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 17 553 PMID: 24381506

Neuser et al (2013) Region-specific integration of embryonic stem cell-derived neuronal precursors into a pre-existing neuronal circuit. PLoS One 8 e66497 PMID: 23840491

Yu et al (2013) Hyperactivity of ON-type retinal ganglion cells in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PLoS One 8 e76049 PMID: 24069457

Berlinguer-Palmini et al (2013) GPR35 activation reduces Ca2+ transients and contributes to the kynurenic acid-dependent reduction of synaptic activity at CA3-CA1 synapses. PLoS One 8 e82180 PMID: 24312407

Hira et al (2013) In vivo optogenetic tracing of functional corticocortical connections between motor forelimb areas. J Neurosci 7 55 PMID: 23554588

Siddoway et al (2013) An essential role for inhibitor-2 regulation of protein phosphatase-1 in synaptic scaling. J Neurophysiol 33 11206 PMID: 23825423

Maejima et al (2013) Postnatal loss of P/Q-type channels confined to rhombic-lip-derived neurons alters synaptic transmission at the parallel fiber to purkinje cell synapse and replicates genomic Cacna1a mutation phenotype of ataxia and seizures in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 33 5162 PMID: 23516282

Taylor et al (2013) Axonal translation of β-catenin regulates synaptic vesicle dynamics. J Neurosci 33 5584 PMID: 23536073

He et al (2013) Synaptic and extrasynaptic plasticity in glutamatergic circuits involving dentate granule cells following chronic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor inhibition. J Neurophysiol 109 1535 PMID: 23255721

Tamburri et al (2013) NMDA-receptor activation but not ion flux is required for amyloid-β induced synaptic depression. PLoS One 8 e65350 PMID: 23750255

Viemari et al (2013) β-Noradrenergic receptor activation specifically modulates the generation of sighs in vivo and in vitro. EMBO J 7 179 PMID: 24273495

Chanda et al (2013) Neurons generated by direct conversion of fibroblasts reproduce synaptic phenotype caused by autism-associated neuroligin-3 mutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110 16622 PMID: 24046374

Medrihan et al (2013) Synapsin II desynchronizes neurotransmitter release at inhibitory synapses by interacting with presynaptic calcium channels. Nat Commun 4 1512 PMID: 23443540

Gao and Derbenev (2013) Synaptic and extrasynaptic transmission of kidney-related neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. J Neurophysiol 110 2637 PMID: 24027107

Akerboom et al (2012) Optimization of a GCaMP calcium indicator for neural activity imaging. J Neurosci 32 13819 PMID: 23035093

Arenkiel et al (2012) Activity-induced remodeling of olfactory bulb microcircuits revealed by monosynaptic tracing. PLoS One 6 e29423 PMID: 22216277

He et al (2012) Increased Kv1 channel expression may contribute to decreased sIPSC frequency following chronic inhibition of NR2B-containing NMDAR. Neuropsychopharmacology 37 1338 PMID: 22218089

Kolind et al (2012) Opposing Effects of Intrinsic Conductance and Correlated Synaptic Input on V-Fluctuations during Network Activity. Front Comput Neurosci 6 40 PMID: 22783184

Heinrich et al (2012) K+ depolarization evokes ATP, adenosine and glutamate release from glia in rat hippocampus: a microelectrode biosensor study. Br J Pharmacol 167 1003 PMID: 22394324

Upreti et al (2012) Altered neurotransmitter release, vesicle recycling and presynaptic structure in the pilocarpine model of temporal lobe epilepsy. Brain 135 869 PMID: 22344585


Do you know of a great paper that uses CNQX from Tocris? If so please let us know.

Commented out for usability testing

Reviews

TODO: Add Reviews

Literature in this Area

Pain

Pain Research Product Guide

A collection of over 250 products for pain research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Nociception
  • Ion Channels
  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
  • Intracellular Signaling
Addiction

Addiction Poster

The key feature of drug addiction is the inability to stop using a drug despite clear evidence of harm. This poster describes the brain circuits associated with addiction, and provides an overview of the main classes of addictive drugs and the neurotransmitter systems that they target.

Alzheimer's

Alzheimer's Poster

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative brain disease and the most common cause of dementia, affecting approximately 47 million people worldwide. Updated in 2015, this poster summarizes the structural and functional changes observed in the progression of this neurodegenerative disease, as well as classic AD drug targets.

Depression

Depression Poster

Major depressive disorder is characterized by depressed mood and a loss of interest and/or pleasure. Updated in 2015 this poster highlights presynaptic and postsynaptic targets for the potential treatment of major depressive disorder, as well as outlining the pharmacology of currently approved antidepressant drugs.

Learning & Memory

Learning & Memory Poster

Recognition memory enables us to make judgements about whether or not we have encountered a particular stimulus before. This poster outlines the cellular mechanisms underlying recognition memory and its links to long-term depression, as well as the use of pharmacological intervention to assess the role of neurotransmitters in recognition memory.

Pain

Pain Poster

Peripheral sensitization is the reduction in the threshold of excitability of sensory neurons that results in an augmented response to a given external stimulus. This poster outlines the excitatory and inhibitory signaling pathways involved in modulation of peripheral sensitization. The role of ion channels, GPCRs, neurotrophins, and cytokines in sensory neurons are also described.

Parkinson's

Parkinson's Poster

Parkinson's disease (PD) causes chronic disability and is the second most common neurodegenerative condition. This poster outlines the neurobiology of the disease, as well as highlighting current therapeutic treatments for symptomatic PD, and emerging therapeutic strategies to delay PD onset and progression.

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia Poster

Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects 1% of the worldwide population. This poster describes the neurobiology of Schizophrenia, as well as highlighting the genetic and environmental factors that play a fundamental role in the etiology of the disease. The current and emerging drug targets are also discussed.

Pathways for CNQX

Protocols

TODO: Add Protocols