Pricing Availability   Qty
Cat.No. 3679 - DS2 | C18H12ClN3OS | CAS No. 374084-31-8
Description: Positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors; displays subunit selectivity
Chemical Name: 4-Chloro-N-[2-(2-thienyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl]benzamide
Purity: ≥97% (HPLC)
Citations (8)
Literature (7)

Biological Activity for DS2

DS2 is a positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors. Potentiates GABA-evoked currents mediated by α4β3δ receptors (EC50 = 142 nM, in vitro). Displays complex selectivity profile, with selectivity for δ-containing receptors (α4/6βxδ > α1βxδ >> γ2 > α4β3 GABAA receptors). Enhances tonic currents of thalamocortical neurons in wild-type mice.

Compound Libraries for DS2

DS2 is also offered as part of the Tocriscreen 2.0 Max. Find out more about compound libraries available from Tocris.

Technical Data for DS2

M. Wt 353.83
Formula C18H12ClN3OS
Storage Desiccate at +4°C
Purity ≥97% (HPLC)
CAS Number 374084-31-8
PubChem ID 979718
Smiles O=C(C4=CC=C(Cl)C=C4)NC2=C(C3=CC=CS3)N=C1C=CC=CN12

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Solubility Data for DS2

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
DMSO 17.69 50

Preparing Stock Solutions for DS2

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 353.83. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Select a batch to recalculate based on the batch molecular weight:
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
0.5 mM 5.65 mL 28.26 mL 56.52 mL
2.5 mM 1.13 mL 5.65 mL 11.3 mL
5 mM 0.57 mL 2.83 mL 5.65 mL
25 mM 0.11 mL 0.57 mL 1.13 mL

Molarity Calculator

Calculate the mass, volume, or concentration required for a solution.

*When preparing stock solutions always use the batch-specific molecular weight of the product found on the vial label and SDS / CoA (available online).

Reconstitution Calculator

The reconstitution calculator allows you to quickly calculate the volume of a reagent to reconstitute your vial. Simply enter the mass of reagent and the target concentration and the calculator will determine the rest.


Dilution Calculator

Calculate the dilution required to prepare a stock solution.

Product Datasheets for DS2

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
Select another batch:

References for DS2

References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.

Wafford et al (2009) Novel compounds selectively enhance δ subunit containing GABAA receptors and increase tonic currents in thalamus. Neuropharmacology 56 182 PMID: 18762200

Jensen et al (2013) A study of subunit selectivity, mechanism and site of action of the delta selective compound 2 (DS2) at human recombinant and rodent native GABAA receptors. Br.J.Pharmacol. 168 1118 PMID: 23061935

Ahring et al (2016) A pharmacological assessment of agonists and modulators at α4β2γ2 and α4β2δ GABAA receptors: The challenge in comparing apples with oranges. Pharmacol.Res. 111 563 PMID: 27178730

If you know of a relevant reference for DS2, please let us know.

View Related Products by Target

View Related Products by Product Action

View all GABAA Receptor Modulators

Keywords: DS2, DS2 supplier, Positive, allosteric, modulators, delta, GABAA, receptors, PAM, Receptors, 3679, Tocris Bioscience

8 Citations for DS2

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for DS2 include:

Olander et al (2018) Delineation of the functional properties and the mechanism of action of AA29504, an allosteric agonist and positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors. Biochem Pharmacol 150 305 PMID: 29454619

Tong et al (2015) Ectopic Expression of α6 and δ GABAA Receptor Subunits in Hilar Somatostatin Neurons Increases Tonic Inhibition and Alters Network Activity in the Dentate Gyrus. J Neurosci 35 16142 PMID: 26658866

Hammer et al (2015) Functional characterization of the 1,5-benzodiazepine clo. and its major active metabolite N-desmethylclobazam at human GABA(A) receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. PLoS One 10 e0120239 PMID: 25798598

Shu et al (2012) Characteristics of concatemeric GABA(A) receptors containing α4/δ subunits expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Br J Pharmacol 165 2228 PMID: 21950777

Mirheydari et al (2014) Unexpected Properties of δ-Containing GABAA Receptors in Response to Ligands Interacting with the α+ β- Site. Neurochem Res 39 1057 PMID: 24072672

Kerti-Szigeti et al (2014) Synaptic GABAA receptor clustering without the γ2 subunit. Nat Methods 34 10219 PMID: 25080584

Patel et al (2016) Context-Dependent Modulation of GABAAR-Mediated Tonic Currents. J Neurosci 36 607 PMID: 26758848

Mennerick et al (2014) Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate depletion fails to affect neurosteroid modulation of GABAA receptor function. Psychopharmacology (Berl) 231 3493 PMID: 24553581

Do you know of a great paper that uses DS2 from Tocris? Please let us know.

Reviews for DS2

There are currently no reviews for this product. Be the first to review DS2 and earn rewards!

Have you used DS2?

Submit a review and receive an Amazon gift card.

$50/€35/£30/$50CAN/¥300 Yuan/¥5000 Yen for first to review with an image

$25/€18/£15/$25CAN/¥75 Yuan/¥1250 Yen for a review with an image

$10/€7/£6/$10 CAD/¥70 Yuan/¥1110 Yen for a review without an image

Submit a Review

Literature in this Area

Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!

*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.

Ion Channel

Ion Channel Product Listing

A collection of around 500 products for ion channel research, the listing includes research tools for the study of:

  • Ligand-gated ion channels
  • Voltage-gated ion channels
  • Other Ion Channels

Pain Research Product Guide

A collection of over 280 products for pain research, the guide includes research tools for the study of:

  • Nociception
  • Ion Channels
  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptors
  • Intracellular Signaling
GABA Receptors

GABA Receptors Scientific Review

Written by Ian Martin, Norman Bowery and Susan Dunn, this review provides a history of the GABA receptor, as well as discussing the structure and function of the various subtypes and the clinical potential of receptor modulators; compounds available from Tocris are listed.


Addiction Poster

The key feature of drug addiction is the inability to stop using a drug despite clear evidence of harm. This poster describes the brain circuits associated with addiction, and provides an overview of the main classes of addictive drugs and the neurotransmitter systems that they target.


Epilepsy Poster

Epilepsy is a brain disease that affects 60 million people globally. More than 20 anti-seizure drugs are currently available, but these do not address the underlying causes of the condition. This poster summarizes current knowledge about the development of the condition and highlights some approaches that have disease-modifying effects in proof-of-concept studies.


Pain Poster

Peripheral sensitization is the reduction in the threshold of excitability of sensory neurons that results in an augmented response to a given external stimulus. This poster outlines the excitatory and inhibitory signaling pathways involved in modulation of peripheral sensitization. The role of ion channels, GPCRs, neurotrophins, and cytokines in sensory neurons are also described.


Schizophrenia Poster

Schizophrenia is a debilitating psychiatric disorder that affects 1% of the worldwide population. This poster describes the neurobiology of Schizophrenia, as well as highlighting the genetic and environmental factors that play a fundamental role in the etiology of the disease. The current and emerging drug targets are also discussed.