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Biological Activity for 2R,6R-Hydroxynorketamine hydrochloride
2R,6R-Hydroxynorketamine hydrochloride is a ketamine metabolite. It enhances AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory post-synaptic potentials in the CA1 region of hippocampal slices and decreases intracellular D-serine (a NMDA co-agonist) concentrations in PC-12 cells (IC50 = 0.68 nM). 2R,6R-Hydroxynorketamine upregulates KCNQ2 channels in mouse ventral hippocampal glutamatergic neurons in vitro and in vivo. Exerts antidepressant effects in mice. Lacks ketamine-related side effects.
Sold under license from the NIH, US patent 62/313,309
Technical Data for 2R,6R-Hydroxynorketamine hydrochloride
|Storage||Desiccate at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Solubility Data for 2R,6R-Hydroxynorketamine hydrochloride
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions for 2R,6R-Hydroxynorketamine hydrochloride
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 276.16. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||3.62 mL||18.11 mL||36.21 mL|
|5 mM||0.72 mL||3.62 mL||7.24 mL|
|10 mM||0.36 mL||1.81 mL||3.62 mL|
|50 mM||0.07 mL||0.36 mL||0.72 mL|
Product Datasheets for 2R,6R-Hydroxynorketamine hydrochloride
References for 2R,6R-Hydroxynorketamine hydrochloride
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Singh et al (2016) KA metabolites enantioselectively decrease intracellular D-serine concentrations in PC-12 cells. PLoS One 11 e0149499 PMID: 27096720
Zanos et al (2016) NMDAR inhibition-independent antidepressant actions of KA metabolites. Nature 533 481 PMID: 27144355
Lopez et al (2022) Ketamine exerts its sustained antidepressant effects via cell-type-specific regulation of Kcnq2. Neuron 110 2283 PMID: 35649415
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Keywords: 2R,6R-Hydroxynorketamine hydrochloride, 2R,6R-Hydroxynorketamine hydrochloride supplier, Potent, AMPA, agonists, agonism, ketamine, metabolites, antidepressants, enantiomer, APJ, 2R,6R-HNK, Receptors, Ketamine, and, Metabolites, 6094, Tocris Bioscience
3 Citations for 2R,6R-Hydroxynorketamine hydrochloride
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for 2R,6R-Hydroxynorketamine hydrochloride include:
Chou et al (2018) (2R,6R)-hydroxynorKA rescues chronic stress-induced depression-like behavior through its actions in the midbrain periaqueductal gray. Neuropharmacology 139 1 PMID: 29953886
Ago et al (2019) (R)-Ketamine induces a greater increase in prefrontal 5-HT release than (S)-Ketamine and Ketamine Metabolites via an AMPA receptor-independent mechanism. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 22 665 PMID: 31325908
Ye et al (2019) KA metabolite (2R,6R)-hydroxynorKA enhances aggression via periaqueductal gray glutamatergic transmission. Neuropharmacology 157 PMID: 31207251
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Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!
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The key feature of drug addiction is the inability to stop using a drug despite clear evidence of harm. This poster describes the brain circuits associated with addiction, and provides an overview of the main classes of addictive drugs and the neurotransmitter systems that they target.
Major depressive disorder is characterized by depressed mood and a loss of interest and/or pleasure. Updated in 2015 this poster highlights presynaptic and postsynaptic targets for the potential treatment of major depressive disorder, as well as outlining the pharmacology of currently approved antidepressant drugs.