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Biological Activity for D-AP4
D-AP4 is a broad spectrum excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist. Also agonist at the quisqualate-sensitized AP6 site in hippocampus where it is less potent than L-AP4.
Technical Data for D-AP4
|Storage||Store at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
Solubility Data for D-AP4
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions for D-AP4
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 183.1. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||5.46 mL||27.31 mL||54.61 mL|
|5 mM||1.09 mL||5.46 mL||10.92 mL|
|10 mM||0.55 mL||2.73 mL||5.46 mL|
|50 mM||0.11 mL||0.55 mL||1.09 mL|
References for D-AP4
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Davies and Watkins (1982) Actions of D and L forms of 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate and 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate in the cat spinal cord. Brain Res. 235 378 PMID: 6145492
Evans et al (1982) The effect of a series of ω-phosphonic-α-carboxylic amino acids on electrically evoked and amino acid induced responses in isolated spinal cord preparations. Br.J.Pharmacol. 75 65 PMID: 7042024
Schulte et al (1994) Utilization of the resolved L-isomer of 2-amino-6-phosphonhexanoic acid (L-AP6) as a selective agonist for a quisqualate-sensitized site in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. Brain Res. 649 203 PMID: 7953634
If you know of a relevant reference for D-AP4, please let us know.
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Keywords: D-AP4, D-AP4 supplier, Broad, spectrum, EAA, antagonists, Glutamate, Ionotropic, Non-Selective, iGluR, Receptors, mGlur, Metabotropic, Non-selective, mGlu, 0102, Tocris Bioscience
3 Citations for D-AP4
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for D-AP4 include:
Sexton et al (2015) Type I intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells of early post-natal development correspond to the M4 subtype. Neural Dev 10 17 PMID: 26091805
France (2017) Multiple roles of GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors in synaptic plasticity in juvenile hippocampus. Neuropharmacology 112 76 PMID: 27523302
Sexton and Gelder (2015) G-Protein Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Minimally Regulates Melanopsin Activity in Intrinsically Photosensitive Retinal Ganglion Cells. PLoS One 10 e0128690 PMID: 26069965
Do you know of a great paper that uses D-AP4 from Tocris? Please let us know.
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Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
Epilepsy is a brain disease that affects 60 million people globally. More than 20 anti-seizure drugs are currently available, but these do not address the underlying causes of the condition. This poster summarizes current knowledge about the development of the condition and highlights some approaches that have disease-modifying effects in proof-of-concept studies.
Peripheral sensitization is the reduction in the threshold of excitability of sensory neurons that results in an augmented response to a given external stimulus. This poster outlines the excitatory and inhibitory signaling pathways involved in modulation of peripheral sensitization. The role of ion channels, GPCRs, neurotrophins, and cytokines in sensory neurons are also described.
Parkinson's disease (PD) causes chronic disability and is the second most common neurodegenerative condition. This poster outlines the neurobiology of the disease, as well as highlighting current therapeutic treatments for symptomatic PD, and emerging therapeutic strategies to delay PD onset and progression.