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NMDA antagonist (Ki = 1.4 μM); exhibits more potent and longer lasting antidepressant effects compared to its enantiomer (S)-ketamine in vivo. Also may not display the psychotomimetic or addictive side effects associated with (S)-ketamine.
|Storage||Store at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 274.19. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|1 mM||3.65 mL||18.24 mL||36.47 mL|
|5 mM||0.73 mL||3.65 mL||7.29 mL|
|10 mM||0.36 mL||1.82 mL||3.65 mL|
|50 mM||0.07 mL||0.36 mL||0.73 mL|
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Zhang et al (2014) R-(-)-ketamine shows greater potency and longer lasting antidepressant effects than S-(+)-ketamine. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 116 137 PMID: 24316345
Xiong et al (2018) Comparison of rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effects of negative modulators of α5-containing GABAA receptors and (R)-ketamine in a chronic social defeat stress model. Pharmacol.Biochem.Behav. 175 139 PMID: 30359627
Zanos et al (2016) NMDAR inhibition-independent antidepressant actions of ketamine metabolites. Nature 533 481 PMID: 27144355
Ebert et al (1997) Norketamine, the main metabolite of ketamine, is a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist in the rat cortex and spinal cord. Eur.J.Pharmacol. 333 99 PMID: 9311667
If you know of a relevant reference for (R)-(-)-Ketamine hydrochloride, please let us know.
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Citations for (R)-(-)-Ketamine hydrochloride
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Literature in this Area
Tocris offers the following scientific literature in this area to showcase our products. We invite you to request* or download your copy today!
*Please note that Tocris will only send literature to established scientific business / institute addresses.
The key feature of drug addiction is the inability to stop using a drug despite clear evidence of harm. This poster describes the brain circuits associated with addiction, and provides an overview of the main classes of addictive drugs and the neurotransmitter systems that they target.
Major depressive disorder is characterized by depressed mood and a loss of interest and/or pleasure. Updated in 2015 this poster highlights presynaptic and postsynaptic targets for the potential treatment of major depressive disorder, as well as outlining the pharmacology of currently approved antidepressant drugs.