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Methiodide form of classical GABAA receptor antagonist (+)-bicuculline. More water-soluble and stable. Non-GABA receptor-mediated actions reported, including actions on calcium-dependent potassium channels.
|Storage||Store at RT|
The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.
Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.
|Solvent||Max Conc. mg/mL||Max Conc. mM|
Preparing Stock Solutions
The following data is based on the product molecular weight 509.3. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.
|Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass||1 mg||5 mg||10 mg|
|0.5 mM||3.93 mL||19.63 mL||39.27 mL|
|2.5 mM||0.79 mL||3.93 mL||7.85 mL|
|5 mM||0.39 mL||1.96 mL||3.93 mL|
|25 mM||0.08 mL||0.39 mL||0.79 mL|
References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.
Olsen et al (1976) Studies on the neuropharmacological activity of bicuculline and related compounds. Brain Res. 102 283 PMID: 1247886
Seutin and Johnson (1999) Recent advances in the pharmacology of quaternary salts of bicuculline. TiPS 20 268 PMID: 10390643
Chan et al (2006) Blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the ventromedial hypothalamus further stimulates glucagon and sympathoadrenal but not the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal response to hypoglycemia. Diabetes 55 1080 PMID: 16567532
Kurt et al (2006) Differential effects of iontophoretic in vivo application of the GABAA-antagonists bicuculline and gabazine in sensory cortex. Hear.Res. 212 224 PMID: 16442250
If you know of a relevant reference for (-)-Bicuculline methiodide, please let us know.
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Keywords: (-)-Bicuculline methiodide, (-)-Bicuculline methiodide supplier, Water-soluble, GABAA, antagonists, Receptors, 2503, Tocris Bioscience
51 Citations for (-)-Bicuculline methiodide
Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for (-)-Bicuculline methiodide include:
He and Bausch (2014) Synaptic plasticity in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission following chronic Mem. treatment in an in vitro model of limbic epileptogenesis. J Neurophysiol 77 379 PMID: 24184417
Platt et al (2012) Striatal DA transmission is subtly modified in human A53Tα-synuclein overexpressing mice. PLoS One 7 e36397 PMID: 22570709
He et al (2012) Increased Kv1 channel expression may contribute to decreased sIPSC frequency following chronic inhibition of NR2B-containing NMDAR. Neuropsychopharmacology 37 1338 PMID: 22218089
Jackson et al (2010) Control of cerebellar long-term potentiation by P-Rex-family guanine-nucleotide exchange factors and phosphoinositide 3-kinase. PLoS One 5 e11962 PMID: 20694145
Terasaki et al (2010) Activation of NR2A receptors induces ischemic tolerance through CREB signaling. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 30 1441 PMID: 20145658
Huang and Hsu (2010) Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors induces a nitric oxide-dependent long-term depression in rat medial prefrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex 20 982 PMID: 19666830
Namikawa et al (2018) Salicylate-Induced Suppression of Electrically Driven Activity in Brain Slices from the Auditory Cortex of Aging Mice. Front Aging Neurosci 9 395 PMID: 29311894
Wang et al (2018) Functional Divergence of Delta and Mu Opioid Receptor Organization in CNS Pain Circuits. Neuron 98 90 PMID: 29576387
Hangen et al (2018) Neuronal Activity and Intracellular Calcium Levels Regulate Intracellular Transport of Newly Synthesized AMPAR. Cell Rep 24 1001 PMID: 30044968
Zhang and Lu (2017) Src homology 2 domain-containing phosphotyrosine phosphatase 2 (Shp2) controls surface GluA1 protein in synaptic homeostasis. J Biol Chem 292 15481 PMID: 28768764
Lorenz-Guertin et al (2017) A versatile optical tool for studying synaptic GABAA receptor trafficking. J Cell Sci 130 3933 PMID: 29025969
Francois et al (2017) A Brainstem-Spinal Cord Inhibitory Circuit for Mechanical Pain Modulation by GABA and Enkephalins. Neuron 93 822 PMID: 28162807
Medrihan et al (2017) Initiation of Behavioral Response to Antidepressants by Cholecystokinin Neurons of the Dentate Gyrus. Neuron 95 564 PMID: 28735749
Fox and Hentges (2017) Differential Desensitization Observed at Multiple Effectors of Somatic μ-Opioid Receptors Underlies Sustained Agonist-Mediated Inhibition of Proopiomelanocortin Neuron Activity. J Neurosci 37 8667 PMID: 28821664
Tashiro et al (2014) GABAergic influence on temporomandibular joint-responsive spinomedullary neurons depends on estrogen status. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 259 53 PMID: 24316475
Zhang et al (2014) Glycine induces bidirectional modifications in N-MthD.-aspartate receptor-mediated synaptic responses in hippocampal CA1 neurons. PLoS Pathog 289 31200 PMID: 25231980
Song et al (2012) Restoration of intracortical and thalamocortical circuits after transplantation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into the ischemic brain of mice. Cell Transplant 22 2001 PMID: 23069268
Zhu et al (2012) Inflammation-induced shift in spinal GABA(A) signaling is associated with a tyrosine kinase-dependent increase in GABA(A) current density in nociceptive afferents. J Neurophysiol 108 2581 PMID: 22914654
Kohnomi et al (2012) D(2)-like DA receptors differentially regulate unitary IPSCs depending on presynaptic GABAergic neuron subtypes in rat nucleus accumbens shell. J Neurophysiol 107 692 PMID: 22049335
Kim et al (2012) Decreased afferent excitability contributes to synaptic depression during high-frequency stimulation in hippocampal area CA1. J Neurophysiol 108 1965 PMID: 22773781
Young et al (2007) Glutamate receptor expression and chronic glutamate toxicity in rat motor cortex. Neurobiol Dis 26 78 PMID: 17240155
Volmer et al (2007) Borna disease virus infection impairs synaptic plasticity. J Biol Chem 81 8833 PMID: 17553893
Zemkova et al (2011) NE causes a biphasic change in mammalian pinealocye membrane potential: role of alpha1B-adrenoreceptors, phospholipase C, and Ca2+. Endocrinology 152 3842 PMID: 21828176
Gallo and Iadecola (2011) Neuronal nitric oxide contributes to neuroplasticity-associated protein expression through cGMP, protein kinase G, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase. J Neurosci 31 6947 PMID: 21562256
Prat et al (2009) Mutation of the protein kinase C site in borna disease virus phosphoprotein abrogates viral interference with neuronal signaling and restores normal synaptic activity. Neuroscience 5 e1000425 PMID: 19424436
Kempf et al (2014) The sphingolipid receptor S1PR2 is a receptor for Nogo-a repressing synaptic plasticity. PLoS Biol 12 e1001763 PMID: 24453941
Pedroni et al (2014) Electrophysiological characterization of granule cells in the dentate gyrus immediately after birth. Front Cell Neurosci 8 44 PMID: 24592213
He et al (2013) Synaptic and extrasynaptic plasticity in glutamatergic circuits involving dentate granule cells following chronic N-MthD.-aspartate receptor inhibition. Neuroscience 109 1535 PMID: 23255721
Wagner et al (2013) The dorsomedial hypothalamus mediates stress-induced hyperalgesia and is the source of the pronociceptive peptide cholecystokinin in the rostral ventromedial medulla. Physiol Rep 238 29 PMID: 23415792
Mariottini et al (2019) Wilm's tumor 1 promotes memory flexibility. Nat Commun 10 3756 PMID: 31434897
Chiu et al (2019) NMDAR-Activated PP1 Dephosphorylates GluN2B to Modulate NMDAR Synaptic Content. Cell Rep 28 332 PMID: 31291571
Zhang et al (2016) Increased Activity of Src Homology 2 Domain Containing Phosphotyrosine Phosphatase 2 (Shp2) Regulates Activity-dependent AMPA Receptor Trafficking. J Biol Chem 291 18856 PMID: 27417137
Chan et al (2004) HCN2 and HCN1 channels govern the regularity of autonomous pacemaking and synaptic resetting in globus pallidus neurons. J Neurosci 24 9921 PMID: 15525777
Zhang et al (2014) DA preferentially inhibits NMDA receptor-mediated EPSCs by acting on presynaptic D1 receptors in nucleus accumbens during postnatal development. PLoS One 9 e86970 PMID: 24784836
Chen et al (2017) Amygdalar endothelin-1 regulates pyramidal neuron excitability and affects anxiety. Sci Rep 7 2316 PMID: 28539637
Ootsuka and Mohammed (2015) Activation of the habenula complex evokes autonomic physiological responses similar to those associated with emotional stress. J Virol 3 PMID: 25677551
Cichon and Gan (2015) Branch-specific dendritic Ca2+ spikes cause persistent synaptic plasticity. Nature 520 180 PMID: 25822789
Fehérvári et al (2015) In Vivo Voltage-Sensitive Dye Study of Lateral Spreading of Cortical Activity in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex Induced by a Current Impulse. PLoS One 10 e0133853 PMID: 26230520
Wayman et al (2008) An activity-regulated microRNA controls dendritic plasticity by down-regulating p250GAP. PLoS One 105 9093 PMID: 18577589
Benton et al (2013) Iberiotoxin-sensitive and -insensitive BK currents in Purkinje neuron somata. J Neurophysiol 109 2528 PMID: 23446695
Janczewski et al (2013) Role of inhibition in respiratory pattern generation. J Neurosci 33 5454 PMID: 23536061
Pennock and Hentges (2011) Differential expression and sensitivity of presynaptic and postsynaptic opioid receptors regulating hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin neurons. J Neurosci 31 281 PMID: 21209213
Bortone and Polleux (2009) KCC2 expression promotes the termination of cortical interneuron migration in a voltage-sensitive calcium-dependent manner. Neuron 62 53 PMID: 19376067
Chou et al (2018) (2R,6R)-hydroxynorKA rescues chronic stress-induced depression-like behavior through its actions in the midbrain periaqueductal gray. Neuropharmacology 139 1 PMID: 29953886
Weng et al (2016) Potentiation of Schaffer-Collateral CA1 Synaptic Transmission by eEF2K and p38 MAPK Mediated Mechanisms. Front Cell Neurosci 10 247 PMID: 27826228
Ferando et al (2016) Diminished KCC2 confounds synapse specificity of LTP during senescence. Nat Neurosci 19 1197 PMID: 27500406
Rioult-Pedotti et al (2015) DA Promotes Motor Cortex Plasticity and Motor Skill Learning via PLC Activation. J Neurosci 10 e0124986 PMID: 25938462
Lussier et al (2011) Activity-dependent ubiquitination of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2. Pharmacol Res Perspect 31 3077 PMID: 21414928
Ye et al (2019) KA metabolite (2R,6R)-hydroxynorKA enhances aggression via periaqueductal gray glutamatergic transmission. Neuropharmacology 157 PMID: 31207251
Ahsan Raza (2017) HIPP neurons in the dentate gyrus mediate the cholinergic modulation of background context memory salience. Nat Commun 8 189 PMID: 28775269
Owen and Grover (2015) Activity-dependent differences in function between proximal and distal Schaffer collaterals. J Neurophysiol 113 3646 PMID: 25855695
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Reviews for (-)-Bicuculline methiodide
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We increased synaptic activity using a standard pharmacological approach (20 μM bicuculline and 100 μM 4-AP.
Bicuculline methiodide (Bic) was used to test GABA-A receptors pharmacological properties after expression in pre-transfected HEK cells. 100 microM of Bic fullu suppressed chloride current generated by application of 50 microM GABA at outside-out membrane patch. Figure: black trace - application of GABA, grey trace - application of GABA+Bic.
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