Kainic acid

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Cat.No. 0222 - Kainic acid | C10H15NO4 | CAS No. 487-79-6
Description: Kainate agonist; excitant and neurotoxin
Chemical Name: (2S,3S,4S)-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid
Purity: ≥98% (HPLC)
Citations (35)
Reviews (1)
Literature (8)

Biological Activity for Kainic acid

Kainic acid, also known as kainate, is a selective agonist of kainate ionotropic glutamate receptors (EC50 = 0.6 - 7.4 μM) and a partial agonist at AMPA receptors (EC50 = 31 μM - 170 μM). Kainic acid is used to model epilepsy in vivo and to study the mechanisms of neurodegeneration and neurocytosis induced by excess stimulation by kainic acid. Kainate is shown to be involved in amyloidogenic processing of amyloid precursor protein and Aβ peptides in Alzheimer's disease.

Related compounds include synthetic Kainic acid (Cat. No. 7065), the kainate receptor agonist Domoic acid (Cat. No. 0269) and the antagonist NBQX (Cat. No. 0373).

Technical Data for Kainic acid

Source Digenea sp.
M. Wt 213.23
Formula C10H15NO4
Storage Store at RT
Purity ≥98% (HPLC)
CAS Number 487-79-6
PubChem ID 10255
Smiles C=[C@@](C)[C@@H]1[C@H](CC(O)=O)[C@@H]([C@](O)=O)NC1

The technical data provided above is for guidance only. For batch specific data refer to the Certificate of Analysis.

Tocris products are intended for laboratory research use only, unless stated otherwise.

Solubility Data for Kainic acid

Solvent Max Conc. mg/mL Max Conc. mM
water 5.33 25 with gentle warming

Preparing Stock Solutions for Kainic acid

The following data is based on the product molecular weight 213.23. Batch specific molecular weights may vary from batch to batch due to the degree of hydration, which will affect the solvent volumes required to prepare stock solutions.

Select a batch to recalculate based on the batch molecular weight:
Concentration / Solvent Volume / Mass 1 mg 5 mg 10 mg
0.25 mM 18.76 mL 93.8 mL 187.59 mL
1.25 mM 3.75 mL 18.76 mL 37.52 mL
2.5 mM 1.88 mL 9.38 mL 18.76 mL
12.5 mM 0.38 mL 1.88 mL 3.75 mL

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Product Datasheets for Kainic acid

Certificate of Analysis / Product Datasheet
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References for Kainic acid

References are publications that support the biological activity of the product.

Watkins and Evans (1981) Excitatory amino acid transmitters. Annu.Rev.Pharmacol.Toxicol. 21 165 PMID: 6112965

Watkins (1978) Excitatory amino acids. Kainic acid as a Tool in Neurobiology. Edited by E 37

Ourdev et al (2019) Kainate receptor activation enhances amyloidogenic processing of APP in astrocytes. Mol.Neurobiol. 56 5095 PMID: 30484111

If you know of a relevant reference for Kainic acid, please let us know.

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Keywords: Kainic acid, Kainic acid supplier, Potent, excitant, neurotoxin, Glutamate, Kainate, Receptors, iGluR, Ionotropic, GluK, 0222, Tocris Bioscience

35 Citations for Kainic acid

Citations are publications that use Tocris products. Selected citations for Kainic acid include:

Bernard et al (2013) Phosphorylation of FMRP and alterations of FMRP complex underlie enhanced mLTD in adult rats triggered by early life seizures. Nat Commun 59 42736 PMID: 23831253

Krook-Magnuson et al (2013) On-demand optogenetic control of spontaneous seizures in temporal lobe epilepsy. J Neurosci 4 1376 PMID: 23340416

Wang and Green (2011) Functional role of neurotrophin-3 in synapse regeneration by spiral ganglion neurons on inner hair cells after excitotoxic trauma in vitro. J Neurosci 31 7938 PMID: 21613508

Shin et al (2008) Mislocalization of h channel subunits underlies h channelopathy in temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurobiol Dis 32 26 PMID: 18657617

Marrocco et al (2012) Anxiety-like behavior of prenatally stressed rats is associated with a selective reduction of glutamate release in the ventral hippocampus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 32 17143 PMID: 23197707

Doyon et al (2011) Efficacy of synaptic inhibition depends on multiple, dynamically interacting mechanisms implicated in chloride homeostasis. J Neurosci 7 e1002149 PMID: 21931544

Limó n et al (2019) Electrophysiological evaluation of extracellular spermine and alkaline pH on synaptic human GABAA receptors. Transl Psychiatry 9 218 PMID: 31488811

Park et al (2016) Involvement of AMPA Receptor and Its Flip and Flop Isoforms in Retinal Ganglion Cell Death Following Oxygen/Glucose Deprivation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 57 508 PMID: 26868754

Horita et al (2012) Specialized motor-driven dusp1 expression in the song systems of multiple lineages of vocal learning birds. PLoS One 7 e42173 PMID: 22876306

Huang et al (2012) Glutamate may be an efferent transmitter that elicits inhibition in mouse taste buds. PLoS One 7 e30662 PMID: 22292013

Rodriguez-Diaz et al (2012) Real-time detection of acetylcholine release from the human endocrine pancreas. Nat Protoc 7 1015 PMID: 22555241

Hitt et al (2010) BACE1-/- mice exhibit seizure activity that does not correlate with sodium channel level or axonal localization. Mol Neurodegener 5 31 PMID: 20731874

Peng et al (2010) Postsynaptic spiking homeostatically induces cell-autonomous regulation of inhibitory inputs via retrograde signaling. J Neurosci 30 16220 PMID: 21123568

Szokol et al (2015) Augmentation of Ca(2+) signaling in astrocytic endfeet in the latent phase of temporal lobe epilepsy. J Biol Chem 9 49 PMID: 25762896

Xiao et al (2015) CX3 chemokine receptor 1 deficiency leads to reduced dendritic complexity and delayed maturation of newborn neurons in the adult mouse hippocampus. Front Cell Neurosci 10 772 PMID: 26109952

Spampinato et al (2015) Glial metabotropic glutamate receptor-4 increases maturation and survival of oligodendrocytes. Neurotox Res 8 462 PMID: 25642169

Parrish et al (2015) Methionine increases BDNF DNA methylation and improves memory in epilepsy. Neurobiol Dis 2 401 PMID: 25909085

Hou and Yu (2013) Activity-regulated somatostatin expression reduces dendritic spine density and lowers excitatory synaptic transmission via postsynaptic somatostatin receptor 4. Neural Regen Res 288 2501 PMID: 23233668

Spitzer et al (2019) Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells Become Regionally Diverse and Heterogeneous with Age. Neuron 101 459 PMID: 30654924

Domin et al (2014) Group III mGlu receptor agonist, ACPT-I, exerts potential neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. Ann Clin Transl Neurol 26 99 PMID: 24402869

Chuang et al (2012) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ/mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 signaling protects against seizure-induced neuronal cell death in the hippocampus following experimental status epilepticus. J Neuroinflammation 9 184 PMID: 22849356

Elliott-Hunt et al (2004) Galanin acts as a neuroprotective factor to the hippocampus. PLoS Comput Biol 101 5105 PMID: 15041741

Chang et al (2014) Seizure-induced reduction in PIP3 levels contributes to seizure-activity and is rescued by valproic acid. Neurobiol Dis 62 296 PMID: 24148856

Morel et al (2018) JIP1-Mediated JNK Activation Negatively Regulates Synaptic Plasticity and Spatial Memory. J Neurosci 38 3708 PMID: 29540552

Balleza-Tapia et al (2018) TrpV1 receptor activation rescues neuronal function and network gamma oscillations from Aβ-induced impairment in mouse hippocampus in vitro. Elife 7 PMID: 30417826

Smith et al (2016) Superimposing Status Epilepticus on Neuron Subset-Specific PTEN Haploinsufficient and Wild Type Mice Results in Long-term Changes in Behavior. Sci Rep 6 36559 PMID: 27819284

Ferando and Mody (2015) In vitro gamma oscillations following partial and complete ablation of δ subunit-containing GABAA receptors from parvalbumin interneurons. Neuropharmacology 88 91 PMID: 25261782

Neves et al (2013) The LIM homeodomain protein Lhx6 regulates maturation of interneurons and network excitability in the mammalian cortex. Cereb Cortex 23 1811 PMID: 22710612

Ferando and Mody (2013) Altered gamma oscillations during pregnancy through loss of δ subunit-containing GABA(A) receptors on parvalbumin interneurons. Front Neural Circuits 7 144 PMID: 24062647

deCarvalho et al (2013) Aversive cues fail to activate fos expression in the asymmetric olfactory-habenula pathway of zebrafish. Front Neural Circuits 7 98 PMID: 23734103

Fritsch et al (2009) Pathological alterations in GABAergic interneurons and reduced tonic inhibition in the basolateral amygdala during epileptogenesis. Neuroscience 163 415 PMID: 19540312

Evans (2017) Assembly, secretory pathway trafficking, and surface delivery of kainate receptors is regulated by neuronal activity. Cell Rep 19 2613 PMID: 28636947

Zhao (2017) Signaling by growth/differentiation factor 5 through the bone morphogenetic protein receptortype IB protects neurons against kainic acid-induced neurodegeneration. Neurosci Lett 651 36 PMID: 28458020

Fletcher (2017) Reduced sensory synaptic excitation impairs motor neuron function via Kv2.1 in spinal muscular atrophy. Nat Neurosci 20 905 PMID: 28504671

Milstein et al (2007) TARP subtypes differentially and dose-dependently control synaptic AMPA receptor gating. Neuron 55 905 PMID: 17880894

Do you know of a great paper that uses Kainic acid from Tocris? Please let us know.

Reviews for Kainic acid

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Each animal receives 7.5 m/k of KA. Dosing every 1/2 after the first initial hour. Until 2 stage 4-5 seizures has been seen..
By Anonymous on 05/17/2019
Species: Rat

Rats were given KA to produce a spontaneous seizing animal to experiment with epileptic compounds.

Literature in this Area

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